This article is about ground-based mass transit. For other cable railroad track systems, see cable railway. For other uses, see Cable car A cable car ( normally known as a cable tram away North America ) is a character of cable railway used for batch transit in which fulminate cars are hauled by a endlessly moving cable running at a constant speed. individual cars stop and start by releasing and gripping this cable as required. cable cars are distinct from funiculars, where the cars are permanently attached to the cable .
watch from a cable car in San Francisco
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history [edit ]
 Poole & Hunt, machinists and engineers, was a major cable industry designer and contractor and manufacturer of gearing, sheaves, shafting and wire rope drums. They did work for cable railways in Baltimore, Chicago, Hoboken, Kansas City, New York, and Philadelphia. cable Driving Plant, Designed and Constructed by Poole & Hunt, Baltimore, MD. Drawing by P.F. Goist, circa 1882. The power station has two horizontal single-cylinder engines. The lithograph shows a conjectural prototype of a cable powerhouse, quite than any actual built structure.Poole & Hunt, machinists and engineers, was a major cable diligence couturier and contractile organ and manufacturer of gearing, sheaves, shafting and cable r-2 drums. They did cultivate for cable railways in Baltimore, Chicago, Hoboken, Kansas City, New York, and Philadelphia. The foremost cable-operated railroad track, employing a moving rope that could be picked up or released by a grip on the cars was the Fawdon Wagonway in 1826, a colliery railroad track production line. [ 3 ] [ 4 ] The London and Blackwall Railway, which opened for passengers in east London, England, in 1840 used such a system. [ 5 ] The r-2 available at the time proved excessively susceptible to wear and the system was abandoned in party favor of steam locomotives after eight years. In America, the first cable car installation in operation credibly was the West Side and Yonkers Patent Railway in New York City, as its first-ever elevated railway which ran from 1 July 1868 to 1870. The cable engineering used in this raised railway involved collar-equipped cables and claw-equipped cars, proving cumbersome. The agate line was closed and rebuilt, reopening with steam locomotives. In 1869 P. G. T. Beauregard demonstrated a cable cable car at New Orleans [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ] and was issued U.S. Patent 97,343. other cable cars to use grips were those of the Clay Street Hill Railroad, which late became part of the San Francisco cable car system. The build up of this occupation was promoted by Andrew Smith Hallidie with design work by William Eppelsheimer, and it was first gear tested in 1873. The success of these grips ensured that this line became the model for other cable car transit systems, and this model is much known as the Hallidie Cable Car. In 1881 the Dunedin cable tramway system opened in Dunedin, New Zealand and became the first such system away San Francisco. For Dunedin, George Smith Duncan farther developed the Hallidie model, introducing the rend wind and the slot brake ; the former was a way to pull cars through a arch, since Dunedin ‘s curves were besides sharp to allow coast, while the latter forced a wedge down into the cable slot to stop the car. Both of these innovations were by and large adopted by early cities, including San Francisco. In Australia, the Melbourne cable tramway system operated from 1885 to 1940. It was one of the most extensive in the world with 1200 trams and trailers operating over 15 routes with 103 km ( 64 miles ) of racetrack. Sydney besides had a match of cable tramcar routes. cable cars quickly spread to early cities, although the major drawing card for most was the ability to displace horsecar ( or mule -drawn ) systems quite than the ability to climb hills. many people at the time viewed horse-drawn transit as unnecessarily barbarous, and the fact that a typical knight could work only four or five hours per day necessitated the maintenance of large stables of draft animals that had to be fed, housed, groomed, medicated and rested. frankincense, for a period, economics worked in favor of cable cars tied in relatively flat cities. For exercise, the Chicago City Railway, besides designed by Eppelsheimer, opened in Chicago in 1882 and went on to become the largest and most profitable cable car system. As with many cities, the problem in flat Chicago was not one of slope, but of transportation capacity. This caused a unlike overture to the combination of fascinate car and trailer. Rather than using a bag cable car and single trailer, as many cities did, or combining the bag and trailer into a single car, like San Francisco ‘s California Cars, Chicago used grip cars to pull trains of up to three trailers. In 1883 the New York and Brooklyn Bridge Railway was opened, which had a most curious feature : though it was a cable car arrangement, it used steam locomotives to get the cars into and out of the terminals. After 1896 the organization was changed to one on which a centrifugal car was added to each train to maneuver at the terminals, while en route, the trains were distillery propelled by the cable .
A San Francisco cable car travels along California Street in the city ‘s Financial District. On 25 September 1883, a screen of a cable car system was held by Liverpool Tramways Company in Kirkdale, Liverpool. This would have been the first gear cable television car system in Europe, but the company decided against implementing it. alternatively, the eminence went to the 1884 Highgate Hill Cable Tramway, a road from Archway to Highgate, north London, which used a continuous cable and clasp arrangement on the 1 in 11 ( 9 % ) climb of Highgate Hill. The facility was not authentic and was replaced by electric traction in 1909. [ 9 ] early cable television car systems were implemented in Europe, though, among which was the Glasgow District Subway, the first clandestine cable car organization, in 1896. ( London, England ‘s first deep-level tube railway, the City & South London Railway, had earlier besides been built for cable draw but had been converted to electric traction before open in 1890. ) A few more cable cable car systems were built in the United Kingdom, Portugal, and France. european cities, having many more curves in their streets, were ultimately less desirable for cable cars than american cities. Though some new cable car systems were still being built, by 1890 the cheaper to construct and simpler to operate electrically -powered streetcar or tramway started to become the norm, and finally started to replace existing cable cable car systems. For a while hybrid cable/electric systems operated, for exemplar in Chicago where electric cars had to be pulled by grip cars through the closed circuit area, due to the lack of streetcar wires there. finally, San Francisco became the alone street-running manually function arrangement to survive—Dunedin, the second city with such cars, was besides the second-last city to operate them, closing down in 1957 .
holocene revival [edit ]
In the last decades of the 20th-century, cable grip in general has seen a limited revival as automatic people movers, used in recourse areas, airports ( for exemplar, Toronto Airport ), huge hospital centers and some urban settings. While many of these systems involve cars permanently attached to the cable, the Minimetro arrangement from Poma / Leitner Group and the Cable Liner system from DCC Doppelmayr Cable Car both have variants that allow the cars to be mechanically decoupled from the cable under computer control, and can therefore be considered a advanced interpretation of the cable car .
operation [edit ]
machinery driving the San Francisco cable car arrangement The cable slot lies centered between the two rails of the track, providing an entrance for the bag, 1970. The cable television is itself powered by a stationary engine or motor situated in a cable family or power house. The speed at which it moves is relatively constant depending on the count of units gripping the cable at any given time. The cable cable car begins moving when a clamp device attached to the cable car, called a grip, applies press to ( “ grips ” ) the moving cable. conversely, the car is stopped by releasing coerce on the cable ( with or without wholly detaching ) and applying the brake. This absorbing and releasing action may be manual, as was the casing in all early cable car systems, or automatic pistol, as is the encase in some late cable operated people mover type systems. Gripping must be applied evenly and gradually in order to avoid bringing the cable car to cable speed besides quickly and unacceptably jarring passengers. In the case of manual systems, the grip resembles a very large pair of pliers, and considerable strength and skill are required to operate the cable car. As many early cable car operators discovered the hard way, if the bag is not applied properly, it can damage the cable, or even worse, become entangled in the cable. In the latter case, the cable car may not be able to stop and can wreak havoc along its path until the cable house realizes the mishap and halts the cable. [ 10 ] One apparent advantage of the cable car is its relative energy efficiency. This is due to the economy of centrally located ability stations, and the ability of descending cars to transfer energy to ascending cars. however, this advantage is wholly negated by the relatively large energy pulmonary tuberculosis required to just move the cable over and under the numerous guidebook rollers and around the many sheaves. approximately 95 % of the tractive feat in the San Francisco arrangement is expended in plainly moving the four cables at 9.5 miles per hour. [ 11 ] Electric cars with regenerative brake do offer the advantages, without the trouble of moving a cable. In the shell of steep grades, however, cable grip has the major advantage of not depending on attachment between wheels and rails. There is besides the advantage that keeping the car gripped to the cable will besides limit the declivitous accelerate of the car to that of the cable. Because of the constant and relatively low speed, a cable car ‘s likely to cause injury in an accident can be underestimated. even with a cable television car traveling at alone 9 miles per hour, the mass of the cable car and the combine lastingness and accelerate of the cable television can cause extensive damage in a collision .
relation back to funiculars [edit ]
A cable car is superficially similar to a funicular, but differs from such a arrangement in that its cars are not permanently attached to the cable and can stop independently, whereas a cable railway has cars that are permanently attached to the propulsion cable, which is itself end and started. A cable car can not climb as steep a degree as a funicular, but many more cars can be operated with a single cable television, making it more flexible, and allowing a higher capacity. During the rush hour on San Francisco ‘s Market Street Railway in 1883, a car would leave the terminal every 15 seconds. [ 12 ]
A few funicular railways operate in street traffic, and because of this operation are often incorrectly described as cable cars. Examples of such operation, and the attendant confusion, are :
even more bewilderingly, a loanblend cable car/funicular argumentation once existed in the form of the original Wellington Cable Car, in the New Zealand city of Wellington. This line had both a continuous loop draw cable that the cars gripped using a cable cable car gripper, and a libra cable permanently attached to both cars over an undriven pulley at the top of the production line. The descend car gripped the draw cable and was pulled downhill, in turn pulling the ascend car ( which remained ungripped ) uphill by the balance cable. This line was rebuilt in 1979 and is immediately a standard funicular, although it retains its old cable cable car name .
number of cable car systems [edit ]
Cities presently operating cable cars [edit ]
Traditional cable car systems [edit ]
The best-known existing cable car system is the San Francisco cable car system in the city of San Francisco, California. San Francisco ‘s cable cars constitute the oldest and largest such system in permanent wave operation, and it is the lone one hush functioning in the traditional manner, with manually engage cars running in street traffic .
Modern cable car systems [edit ]
several cities operate a mod version of the cable car system. These systems are in full automated and run on their own reserved right of way. They are normally referred to as people movers, although that term is besides applied to systems with other forms of propulsion, including funicular style cable propulsion. These cities include :
- Orlando, Florida – The Hogwarts Express at the Universal Orlando resort is a cable railway, that looks like like a steam train, and transports people between the two theme parks.
Cities previously operating cable cars [edit ]
Australia [edit ]
cable streetcar and trailer on the St Kilda Line in Melbourne in 1905
France [edit ]
Lebanon [edit ]
- Beirut (Late 1880s until destruction during the Lebanese Civil War)
New Zealand [edit ]
Philippines [edit ]
- Manila (Early 1900s-1930s, the Manila-Malabon railway.)
portugal [edit ]
- Lisbon (converted to regular tram lines in the early 20th century: São Sebastião, Estrela, and Graça)
United Kingdom [edit ]
Isle of Man [edit ]
United States [edit ]
 A Seattle cable television cable car in 1940, merely before service ended. Seattle was the death city in the U.S. to abandon all its street cable railways, with the last three lines all close in 1940, leaving San Francisco as the lone U.S. city where cable cars continued to operate .
See besides [edit ]
References [edit ]
- Hilton, George W. (1982). The Cable Car in America (Revised Edition). San Diego, California: Howell–North Books. Reprinted 1997 by Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3051-2.
- Of Cables and Grips: The Cable Cars of San Francisco, by Robert Callwell and Walter Rice, published by Friends of the Cable Car Museum, first edition, 2000.
- Chicago Cable Cars, by Greg Borzo, published by The History Press (2012), ISBN 978-1-60949-327-1
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