AB Standard (New York City Subway car)

AB Standard (New York City Subway car)
The AB Standard was a New York City Subway car class built by the american english Car and Foundry Company and Pressed Steel Car Company between 1914 and 1924. It ran under the mathematical process of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company ( BRT ) and its successors, which included the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation ( BMT ), the New York City Board of Transportation, and the New York City Transit Authority ( NYCTA ). The cars were designed following the sign of the Dual Contracts, which called for a major expansion of the BRT. A full of 950 cars were built. In their earliest days of service, operating crews frequently called them Steels to distinguish them from the wooden BU elevated cars. however, these cars were most normally referred to as BRT Standards, BMT Standards, or plainly Standards. Train crews and the car workshop departments much referred to them as 67-foot cars, AB-types, or most frequently ABs. [ not verified in body ] For their time, the cars introduced a meaning number of improvements to urban rapid passage. The AB Standards were lento retired in the 1960s, last run in 1969. respective AB Standards have been preserved .

background [edit ]

When the BRT was to begin operating fresh underpass lines that had been planned under the Dual Contracts of 1913, it marked the BRT ‘s entrance into providing underpass service in New York. previously, the BRT had only provided passenger rail service on elevated or surface routes. expansion into the metro meant the BRT had to design a metro car suitable to run underground in tunnels. This besides meant the new cars would have to be identical different from the BRT ‘s raised flit, and significantly stronger. The BRT was a forward-thinking company and sought to design a cable car that improved upon those already in practice on the IRT underpass. To do this, the BRT hired engineer Lewis B. Stillwell to design the cars, based on his exercise in the railroad track industry. It was known ahead of the actual sign of the Dual Contracts that the BRT was to operate underpass routes, so the technology campaign actually began anterior to 1913. Stillwell completed his initial designs for the newly 67-foot Standard cars by 1912. In September 1913, a wooden mockup of Stillwell ‘s Standard design was placed on display in Brooklyn for the public and received broadly positive reviews. This was enough to go ahead with an order of the new cars.

Service history [edit ]

All told, 952 A/B Standards were purchased between 1914 and 1924, 2 of them being replacements for 2 others that were damaged in a collision. 100 motorize cars were ordered every year from 1914 to 1922, and 50 unpowered preview cars were ordered in 1924. 2 extra cars were delivered as part of the 1919 order to replace 2 cars ( 2208 and 2274 ) that had been damaged the previous class. [ 1 ] As delivered, all 902 motor cars were “ singles ”, meaning that each could be run entirely by itself if sol desired. Trains would be made up of singles coupled together. however, many cars as delivered in late years were immediately coupled into units as argue below. The first run of the cars was not until early 1915 when respective units particularly equipped with streetcar poles test operated on the Sea Beach Line prior to its courtly unfold as a metro line, which took position on June 22, 1915. [ 2 ] The poles were besides used to move the cars around the 39th St. Shops where they had been primitively delivered in 1914. Cars so equipped were 2000, 2001, 2010, 2021, 2042, 2050, 2051, 2054, 2060, 2071, 2087, and 2092. After June 22, 1915, the A/B Standards operated regular underpass serve. Trolley poles were removed from those cars which had been specially equipped. During their service lives, the A/B Standards saw service on all four routes serving Coney Island : the West End Line, Culver Line, Sea Beach Line, and Brighton Line. They besides ran in the Fourth Avenue Subway, the Broadway Subway, and on the Astoria Line, a well as parts of the BMT ‘s “ Eastern Division “, which includes the Broadway–Brooklyn/Jamaica Line, Broadway–Myrtle Ave. Line, Nassau Street Subway, and the 14th Street–Canarsie Line. During the late 1950s, well into their service lives, the cars besides saw service on the IND Queens Boulevard Line once the sixtieth Street Tunnel Connection was completed and Broadway service was extended to Forest Hills–71st Avenue in Queens ( some units had operated on this line to 179th St. during the 1957 motormen ‘s mint ). In 1958, a brief test was conducted using a trail of these cars in IND F service between Jamaica–179th St. and Broadway–Lafayette St .
Women in a car shop clean and repaint an AB Standard c. 1917–1918 Female shop workers uninfected and repaint an AB Standard c. 1917–1918. Women frequently took jobs in car shops during this time as many men were fighting in World War I several meaning modifications were made during the cars ‘ menstruation of avail. In approximately 1919 and 1920, the passenger compartment of the oldest cars was upgraded to add fans, extra fall, and more places for standees to hold on. besides at that time, the cars were modified to operate in new arrangements ( see letter designations below ). In accession, the cars were besides modified to allow an entire string ‘s doors to be opened or closed from one point on the coach. anterior to this change, it had been necessity to station a conductor in every car of a trail to operate doors anterior to the second coming of MUDC. Following the alteration, one conductor could operate the doors for an entire aim. This allowed the BRT, and after 1923, the BMT, to reduce operate costs. The change involved connecting 9 point jumpers between cars to pass along electric door control signals from the conductor ‘s position. Exterior defend lights had to be added to all cars on all divisions equipped with MUDC ( Multiple Unit Door Control ). On these cars, these were placed on the same fuse that operated the Empty and Load feature ( described below ). This was done to save on barrage stream. In 1927, platforms along the Southern Division stations were being extended to allow for the operation of broad distance, 8-car trains. such trains still required the function of two conductors ; it was not until September 1958 that they began operating using only one conductor. far modifications were made in the late 1950s. As the A/B Standards were nearing the end of their useful avail life, the New York City Transit Authority set up a plan to retire the cars by the end of the 1960s. Trailers were to be retired first, in the early function of the 1960s. This was a matter of practicality since all trailer cars in the New York City Subway were being phased out. Motor cars would be retired adjacent, starting with the oldest cars ( cars 2000–2299, along with a few 2300s ). The rest of the fleet would need to serve longer until new car orders could replace them, so cars 2400–2799 were to receive a light overhaul to allow them to serve through the 1960s. car 2899 was besides overhauled, as it was part of a three-car set with two cars ( 2700s ) that fell within the setting of the program. Cars 2800–2898 were not overhauled as they had a non-standard group corner switch. The remaining 2300s and the 2800s were retired during the mid-1960s ; and the overhaul cars continued in service until the last train operated on August 4, 1969, in Myrtle–Chambers service. pass cars received sealed beam headlights to illuminate tunnels. In summation, their interiors were revitalized with enhanced lighting and buttocks cushions. Overhauled cars besides received a more modern General Electric propulsion manipulate package during this time, which was believed by the Transit Authority to be an upgrade over the older Westinghouse packages. About half the pass cars were so equipped .

retirement [edit ]

The BMT AB Standards were slowly retired through the 1960s and replaced by R27s, R30s, R32s, [ 3 ] R40s, and R42s. Retirement began with the preview cars, progressed to older drive cars that were not overhauled, and finally progressed to the perch of the fleet. The last of the cars were retired from passenger military service in 1969, making a final race on the BMT Myrtle Ave. Line on August 4, 1969. The oldest of the cars had lasted for 51 years in military service. Following their removal from service, all but five AB Standards were scrapped. The five cars that were not scrapped have been preserved :

  • Car 2204 has been preserved by the New York Transit Museum in Brooklyn, NY. However, it is currently not operational.
  • Cars 2390, 2391 and 2392 have been preserved by Railway Preservation Corp. They were restored to operating condition in 2015 and have operated on New York Transit Museum-sponsored excursions since then.
  • Car 2775 has been preserved by the Shore Line Trolley Museum in East Haven, Connecticut. However, it is not in operating condition, due to a flood at the museum site.

It has besides been reported that car 2321 when retired survived integrally and integral. [ citation needed ]

description [edit ]

construction and design [edit ]

The A/B Standards, when ordered, were a detectable promote in the quality of New York ‘s urban exile. Their long ( 67 feet ) and wider size ( 10 feet ) distinguished them from smaller IRT metro cars. There would be more room in each car and more space for seats. Unlike the IRT cars, end side doors were offset from the ends of the cars to aid better passenger flow. This blueprint is covered under U.S. Patent 1,142,263, with Mr. William S. Menden ( headman engineer, and late general director of the BRT ) as the inventor. In accession, there was besides a set of center side doors, making for a full of three sets of doors per side. Each door set consisted of two leaves separated by a center position, which allowed more than one person to use it at once. This arrangement proved superior to all previous designs. The cars were built with a identical potent frame that utilize truss construction and allowed thin metallic element to be used for the side plat. This made the A/B Standards, foot for foot, lighter than like all-steel IRT underpass cars, but with a body doubly as potent. consequently, A/B Standards were well safer than any former design, as they would not telescope in a collision. The military capability of the design proved itself over and over again. even in the 1960s, when the A/B Standards were at or approaching 50 years of age, a couple of cars were involved in minor yard collisions with newer cars. so far in each case, the older cars appeared to have gotten the better of the collision subsequently. Motorized A/B Standards ( centrifugal cars 2000–2899 ) were built with 2 “ maximum grip ” type trucks where wheels closest to the center of the car were 341/4 inches in diameter, while wheels closest to the ends of the car were just 31 inches in diameter. The motors were attached to the axles that bore the larger wheels. This plan was believed to better distribute the cable car ‘s weight to provide the best attachment between the wheels and the rails to prevent wheelslip. Unpowered BX trailer cars 4000–4049 used more conventional trucks where all wheels were 31 inches in diameter .

Innovations for riders [edit ]

seat was designed to be comfortable and roomy. The A/B Standards had short rattan benches arranged in both cross ( forward- or rear-facing ) and longitudinal ( sideways-facing ) positions. Two to three people could fit comfortably on each bench. This gave each rider more legroom and personal space. supplementary seats located by each side door could be folded down for rider use at a conductor ‘s free will. When lowered, these seats would block side door leaves, so they were protected by lock to ensure only a conductor could lower them. many of these latter were removed in late years. On the out side doors, these were situated toward the center of the cars on cars 2000–2299 and toward the goal of the cars on cars 2300–2899 and 4000–4049. Under regular conditions, 78 seats were available for riders in each cable car. During the 1950s, many ( but not all ) of the rattan seats were replaced by spring leather or a plastic intensify ( velon ) that replicated the feel of rattan. For standees, the cars featured four poles by each side door and small handles on the ends of cross seats ( in later years, two of those poles per doorway were removed on many cars ). due to higher than anticipate ridership, metal straps were added above longitudinal seats to improve standee accommodations in 1919–1920. All orders of these cars delivered by and by ( cars 2600–2899, 4000–4049 ) came with metallic straps already in place. During the belated 1930s, many ( but not all ) of the cars saw the alloy straps replaced with horizontal sword bars. These accommodated even more riders than the straps had, further improving the cars. With the earlier ACF built cars, all but around 93 of these cars underwent this conversion ; of the later Pressed Steel cars, just under half were converted. As delivered, the A/B Standards were particularly epicurean for a metro car. Each windowpane came with a shade that could be drawn down to block out sunlight, or raised if a passenger desired more lifelike light. balmy white glass globes served as enclosures for the car ‘s incandescent alight, to soften the coarse glare of the light bulb and redistribute light evenly throughout the car. however, the globes were ultimately removed from the cars between 1925 and 1927 and the shades between 1927 and 1938. In cable car 2221, the shade boards were all in all removed ampere well. During the winter months, electric heaters under the seats provided batch of estrus. P. Smith heaters were used on cars 2400–2599 and a Gold Car Heating model for the rest of the fleet. In warm weather, vents in the roof accommodated the inflow of bracing air travel from outside the car. Three different vent types were used on these grill character ( 2000–2499 ), corner character ( 2500–2599 ), and clerestory type ( 2600–2899, 4000–4049 ). With the earlier ACF cars, the inner breathing grills were readjusted with each order of cars to attempt to get the ideal slant for the best ventilation.In addition, riders could open the drop sash side windows for extra ventilation. initially made from forest ( 2000–2599 ), on later cars they were boldness ( 2600–2899, 4000–4049 ). After early complaints about the summer warmth of the cars, ceiling paddle fans were added during the 1919–1920 modifications. by and by cars came already equipped with fans .

Innovations for the crew [edit ]

The A/B Standards introduced interior conductor ‘s controls. now a conductor could stand inside quite than outside and between cars when operating the doors. The button board controls merely worked if the conductor activated the display panel by keystone. This prevent meddle or error. The button boards were equipped with an indication sag which told the conductor when all doors were finally closed. As mentioned above, each car as delivered required its own conductor to operate doors. During the 1919–20 modifications, the cars were unitized into new arrangements ( see letter designations below ) and converted to allow one conductor to control an integral string ‘s doors. This made operation of the cars more efficient, and reduce parturiency costs. Like all previously designed underpass cars, A/B Standards featured goal storm doors for riders to pass between cars. however, due to the cable car ‘s longer 67-foot length and vector sum overhang, crossing between cars was dangerous, peculiarly on curves. consequently, storm doors were kept locked on these cars, although in emergencies, they could be opened pneumatically by the conductor from the button board. For emergencies, the cars besides featured emergency brake cords like other underpass cars, but added an emergency alarm which could be activated to notify the educate crew in case of emergency. Electric tail lights and running lights were introduced to the underpass with the A/B Standards. first gear running lights would display white at the front of the gearing, while chase lights displayed bolshevik in the rise. This feature was directly connected to the motorman ‘s rearward control. This was in contrast to the IRT practice of using kerosene lamps at the ends of trains, which had to be physically changed over when the train invert direction at a end. At the fourth dimension the A/B Standards were delivered, the white running lights were deemed sufficient for lighting tunnels. however, during the 1950s, the New York City Subway made a system wide stir to sealed beam headlights to improve condom. Therefore, those that received overhaul from 1959 to 1962 ( cars 2400–2799 and 2899 ) received seal beams. Coupling and uncouple of trains were simplified by new automatic couplers. The newfangled WABCO couplers mechanically made and broke electric and air travel connections as trains were coupled or uncoupled. This reduced the sum of employment for train crews during the march. For model, IRT crews had to physically connect or disconnect high voltage jumper cables when coupling or uncoupling their trains. BRT/BMT crews on A/B Standards did not. The merely jumper such a crew would always have to connect or disconnect was the 9 degree low voltage jumper introduced with the 1919–1920 modifications. Coupling and uncouple, consequently, were much simple on these cars than on equipment that came before them besides introduced was the rollsign to the New York City Subway, an invention that would be repeated on many early rolling stock orders. Older cars had metal signs which had to be physically removed and replaced to change. Rollsigns simplified the action by allowing trail crews to update the sign ‘s expose by merely turning a hand crank ( which would later be replaced with an allen wrench to prevent tampering in later rolling stock ). early A/B Standards ( cars 2000–2499 ) had the smaller size rollsigns installed in the windows behind english door pockets, while late cars equipped with larger signs placed them in the upper half of side windows for better visibility. These were shifted to a different windowpane in the 50 trailers of 1924. During the late 20s and early 30s, the BMT installed special features on some of these cars. 2222-3-4 had a bridge/tunnel indication faint at each end of that unit of measurement. 2553 had arm bars on the side seats alongside the doors opposite from where the drop seats were located. besides, the following units were furnished with gumwood dispensing machines : 2300-1-2 through 2357-8-9, 2375-6-7, 2400-4000-2401 through 2424-4012-2425. 2018 had elongated arms on its hand stanchions. concisely after union, car 2014 was out of service long term due to some major mechanical problem. When it reappeared in overhaul after a few years, there had been some changes – it received the larger doorway air pocket compartments typical of the late Pressed Steel cars rather than the smaller variety that the ACF cars had. additionally, it was equipped with longer emergency light fixtures that extended further out. In the mid-40s, the Board of Transportation experimented with different department of the interior paint schemes as an option to the more common olive olive-drab. All divisions had cars that were tested for different combinations. With the A/B Standards, the keep up cars were tested : 2333-4-5 dark, park, and gray. 2381-2-3 embrown and tan. 2666 dark, crimson, and grey, with a red stripe running barely above the windows. 2698 dark, green, and grey. 2747 dark, blue, and grey.

It was finally decided to paint the BMT cars with a light apple green and olive blue combination, and this was applied a well to the IRT Steinways, both even and World ‘s Fair, that were now being maintained in the Coney Island Shops .

propulsion and brake [edit ]

low Voltage propulsion control was coming into style around the time the earliest A/B Standards were being delivered. therefore, it was no surprise that they arrived with this sport. On earlier high electric potential propulsion control systems, 600 volts ran through the motorman ‘s control stand, a well as through the train via the consumption of jumpers between cars. This had to be the case to make the electric contacts to allow all of the motor cars of a discipline to draw baron in a synchronize feat from the Third rail. however, this could be dangerous for motormen and shop personnel alike by creating an electrocution hazard. even unpowered dawdler cars had to carry the 600 volts through these jumpers because it was necessary to pass on the voltage to motor cars behind the preview so as to synchronize them with the lead car. however, Low Voltage propulsion manipulate utilized battery voltage ( 32 volts ) to control the discipline ‘s motors. This battery electric potential was what would pass through the motorman ‘s control stand and between cars. tractive attempt throughout the trail was synchronized by the battery voltage in this manner. meanwhile, each car would respond individually to the battery voltage, by moving its own 600 volt contacts to direct power obtained locally by each car directly from the third train toward the motors. Using 32 volts to control the propulsion in this way was a much safer proposition than the 600 volts associated with the older gamey electric potential apparatus. This besides meant that an A/B Standard crossing onto a dead incision of the third train would not energize it by bridging the col between it and the former survive section. This was particularly beneficial to track workers who had requested the one-third rail world power off in performing their duties. All told, Low Voltage propulsion control condition enormously improved safety for train crews, shop crews, and track gangs. however, the conductor had a 600 volt knife switch located inside his control panel to activate the ventilation system and early accessories. One of the drawbacks of the A/B Standard was its miss of travel rapidly. Due to its length, it was a a lot heavier car than the IRT steel cars of the time. But with alone two motors per car at 140 horsepower each, it was actually underpowered for its size, particularly when running in a train with one or more unpowered trailers. consequently, the top speed of this type car was reasonably low, when compared to other rapid transportation system equipment that has historically run in New York City. One other interesting note about the cable car ‘s propulsion concerned the placement of the motorman ‘s controls in the cab. A/B Standards stick with BRT custom, which placed the train ‘s control nearest the right hired hand and the brake nearest the leave. This was in contrast to IRT equipment, which placed the control nearest the impart and the brake nearest the veracious. The city-owned IND system would emulate the IRT ‘s practice. interim, late BMT designs would replicate the A/B Standards. consequently, the controls in metro cars of BRT or BMT design would appear “ backwards ” to motormen who were acclimated chiefly to IRT or IND equipment once the subways had been unified An electropneumatic brake organization which synchronized the braking feat of every car in the train to provide a faster braking answer was first introduced on the A/B Standards. This newer type of brake, WABCO schedule AMUE, would become the diligence standard in New York ‘s subways and on other systems through the 1930s and lasted in circumscribed quantity until a deep as 1977 ( when the R1-9s, the last of the prewar cars, were retired from servicing ). additionally, a “ variable load ” feature, designated on these cars as an “ Empty and Load ” device, mechanically adjusted each car ‘s braking effort to compensate for uneven passenger loads in unlike cars throughout the train. This activated when the doors opened and shut down while the last door of a car was closed, provided that the motorman ‘s electric brake plug was engaged. At terminals, this was customarily deactivated. It was basically a newcomer system, so far to be perfected, as early cars using this lapp AMUE Universal braking system that did not have this variable load feature of speech were actually seen to have a more effective brake response, such as with the Low-Vs and Steinways on the IRT. An interlock system was introduced on these cars between the motorman ‘s operate system and the doorway operation, in which a stationary educate could not be moved when the doors were opened ; conversely, there was a have by which the doors could not be opened when the speed of a train was 4 MPH or higher, provided that the train was taking world power at the time and not coasting. With most cars, the door control magnets under the seats each controlled a whole gore, meaning both leaves at each doorway opening. Cars 2250–2299 were different in that each attraction controlled a break door leaf .

Experimenting with modern engineering [edit ]

A handful of A/B Standards became the first New York City underpass cars to experiment with a public address system. car 2369 was the first to be indeed equipped ; ultimately, several cars received a loudspeaker telephone system in 1923–24 to aid conductors in making announcements. The experimental frame-up was removed by 1928, but the idea was ahead of its time. PA systems did not come into widespread habit in New York ‘s metro until the 1950s. The A/B Standards were besides the inaugural New York City Subway equipment to experiment with cab signaling. The underlying rationale for the experiment was to allow trains to run safely at closer headways to provide more frequent service. An try was made in 1916 on car 2148 to test a GRS taxi signal organization using A/B Standards. While generally working as intended, the experiment did not have staying power. The equipment necessity for its use was removed by 1918. It was not until the 1990s that a similar estimate would be revisited in the metro, when MTA New York City Transit installed modern CBTC signal equipment on the BMT Canarsie Line .

Letter designations [edit ]

Over their service life, the A/B Standards used several letter designations depending on the shape of the cars. in the first place, the first 600 cars as delivered could operate individually and dubbed A-types. During the 1919–1920 modifications, much of the fleet was reorganized into semi-permanently coupled units as an MUDC system was being added. The following configurations refer to the cars in operation over the years :

  • A units were motorized single cars and capable of running independently.
  • B units consisted of three motorized cars that ran in a set. The two end cars retained their operating cabs at the front and rear, but blind cabs were made inactive. Door control button boards were similarly deactivated in the end cars, but retained in the center (master) car. The center car’s blind cabs were made inactive.
  • BT units consisted of two motorized cars that ran in a set. Each car retained its operating cab at the front and rear, but blind cabs were made inactive. On these units, there was no provision made for door operation, and thus, these units could not be operated independently by themselves.
  • BX units were three-car units consisting of an unpowered trailer between two motorized cars. The two end cars retained their operating cabs at the front and rear, but blind cabs were made inactive. There was a restriction on the use of these units; one such unit was not permitted to operate by itself, nor could two of these units operate together in one consist. In addition, for many years they were forbidden to operate on the Manhattan Bridge, but this restriction was lifted when the majority of the units were reassigned to Coney Island to provide for the expanded service via the 60th St. Tunnel Connection on December 1, 1955.
  • AX units were trailers that operated in connection with an A-type car, loosely associated. Five trailers were originally set up in this manner, but the arrangement was not found to be satisfactory, and they were ultimately coupled into BX units as the rest of the trailers already had been. Though they did not themselves have motors, the cabs could control the entire train’s propulsion. They were typically added onto trains to lengthen them during the rush hours, and they were used strictly on the 14th St.–Canarsie Line.

( note : this designation was besides used much later on to designate cars formally from B units that were detached from their former unitization and independently used in cultivate service. ) The frequent operate and shop personnel references to the cars as ABs or AB Types were derived from the above letter designations, as the huge majority of the cars were primitively A units, and late reorganized into B units. additionally, it is noted that early letter designations were used temporarily involving an extra “ A ” preceding the unit list. This was done as the A/B Standards were being modified in esteem to their jumper cable connections. This work went on from approximately 1928 to 1931, and during those years, one could see units carrying designations “ AA ”, “ AB ”, or “ ABX ”. The extra “ A ” signified that the car had been so equipped. These designations with the extra “ A ” prefix were irregular, and when the integral fleet of these cars had been so equipped by 1931 or 1932, the supernumerary “ A ” prefix was dropped from the designations. Regarding the first 600 cars, while they were being unitized, it was found that 2 cars of this serial ( 2399 and 2500 ) did not fit into the system as it was being set up. These were relegated to work service and not used again until 1953, when 2 of the regular motive cars ( 2006 and 2330 ) were damaged in an accident near Broad St. frankincense, these 2 cars were returned to passenger service to replace the 2 that had been damaged. As a consequence, there have never at any time been more than 948 in servicing and 952 were actually built, but the number 950 serves as a convenient benchmark. 2 A cars ( 2714 and 2741 ) were used to replace those that had been in ferment serve and were returned to passenger serve. Regarding the 300 Pressed Steel motors, as they were first being delivered, the decision was made not to unitize the first 150, or half of them, to allow for the operation of more varied aim lengths, notably for utmost 8 car duration. The final 150 were unitized as B-types in a lot the manner of the earlier sets. In 1959, the first 3 2800 series units were tested for few months with the center field car as a preview, much like a BX unit. After the test was concluded, the motors were returned to these units, and they resumed operation as normal B-types. In late years, as the 2400 series was undergoing rebuilding, it was decided not to include the preview cars in the rebuild. The first base 70 2400s had a 2600 serial A-type car inserted in the unit ( a sum of 35 of these cars were used for this purpose ) ; these units were designated as B-types. The remaining 30 2400s just remained as two car BT units, with as before, no provision for door operation in these cars. One first that occurred with these newly constituted units was, except for the first gear units put out, the end were equipped with connect bar connections rather than couplers, making for a more permanent pair that could lone be broken up with capital difficulty in the shops. All fresh cars subsequently purchased for the system made consumption of this sport and couplers were no long used to join part cars in units. It should be pointed out that for respective years prior to these rebuild cars appearing in overhaul in March 1959, many of the features introduced were already being tested out on a few cars. The rebuild cars had their lighting system rewired for undimmed lighting, exchangeable to the IND R1-9s and the IRT World ‘s Fair Steinways, in a single circuit hookup. car 2710 was tried out just with extra unhorse fixtures along the sides, and car 2006 ( ex-2500 ) with the revised circuitry for bright alight. The decision was made to use the revise circuitry and besides add a one light regular in the corner opposite the motorman ‘s cab. This latter was tried out on eight cars prior to rebuilding – 2060, 2184, 2333–4, 2354-5-6, 2618. The wiring used for these cars was defective and resulted in numerous fires, far more than with other types of cars. At the ends of the cars, the traverse seat was removed between the out fit of english doors and the car ends, leaving merely the side seats in their place. On the test cars ( 2119, 2396-7-8, 2482-4041-2483 ), this was done entirely at the blind, non-operating ends, but finally, the cars that were rebuilt received this at all ends. A speckle k inside paint was applied to these cars. There was a sample car ( 2654 ) for the first 8 that went into service ( 2472 ( ex-2771 ) -4036-2473 ( ex-2753 ), 2588-9-90, 2693, 2743 ), and for the remainder, which were painted on the interior further up toward the ceiling line, there was a sample distribution car ( 2675 ) for this a well. Around this clock, car 2851 had one place of plaza doors painted over on its lower panes. The inaugural 8-car train of sample distribution cars went into Brighton Express service in March 1959. With the shift of equipment coincident with serve changes two months by and by, the train was moved to Sea Beach Express service. Soon subsequently, the gearing was broken up and was freely desegregate with other A/B Standards, as were cars that were former rebuilt. Rebuilt and unrebuilt cars were freely mix in consists henceforth. Headlights were added to the rebuild cars beginning in 1962, when the rebuilding program was about complete. In prediction of this installation, two cars were modified to have merely one running light fastness : 2060 and 2743. car 2709 never received headlights all in all ; ironically, it was one of the cars scrapped when some of these cars were substituted on the scrap list for those to be preserved for the museum. 15 of the 2800 series cars ( 5 units ) remained in Coney Island Yard for 2 years after their service ended. No be active was made to save any of them for the museum. Beginning in 1956, the exterior painted on numbers were supplanted by issue plates. After 1959, all cars being rebuild received them .

Summary of differences within the AB Standard fleet [edit ]

The follow differences existed within cars comprising the fleet of AB Standards :

Car Numbers

Type

Builder

Overhauled?

Roof Ventilator Type

Heaters

Rollsign Placement

Side Window Sash

#2000–#2399

Motors

American Car & Foundry

No

Grill

Gold Car Heating

Door Pocket Window

Wooden

#2400–#2499

Motors

American Car & Foundry

Yes (1960–1962)

Grill

P. Smith

Door Pocket Window

Wooden

#2500–#2599

Motors

American Car & Foundry

Yes (1959–1960)

Box

P. Smith

Side Window

Wooden

#2600–#2799

Motors

Pressed Steel Car Co.

Yes (1959–1962)

Clerestory

Gold Car Heating

Side Window

Brass

#2800–#2899

Motors

Pressed Steel Car Co.

#2899 only (1959)

Clerestory

Gold Car Heating

Side Window

Brass

#4000–#4049

Trailers

Pressed Steel Car Co.

No

Clerestory

Gold Car Heating

Side Window

Brass

  • Of the sixth set of cars (4000 to 4049), only 4036 had been rebuilt, removed from service when it was decided not to use trailers in this program. It survived a few years afterward, used as a yard office, and was finally scrapped at the time remaining unrebuilt cars were being retired.

See the Description above for more details .

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

  1. ^ Gene Sansone, New York Subways : An Illustrated History of New York City ‘s Transit Cars, ISBN 0-8018-7922-1, pp. 154 – 161

  2. ^ISBN  James Clifford Greller, Subway Cars of the BMT, 0-9645765-1-1, pp. 7 – 62
  3. ^https://erausa.org/pdf/bulletin/2006/2006-03-bulletin.pdf
source : https://tonupboys.com
Category : Car Brakes