The other ask standard is that the environmental impacts ( i.e. energy consumption and CO2 footprint ) of recycling the raddled brake pads should not be higher than producing a new one. From table 2, the energy consumption and CO2 footprint of the recycle brake pads are 36 % and 34 % less than the virgo brake pads, respectively. It should be noted that the alone remainder between the recycle and virgo brake pads falls in the fabric stage. In other stages, the recycle and virgin brake pads yield identical environmental impacts. consequently, an elaborate probe into the material stage is conducted to analyse the causes of the abridge energy consumption and CO2 footprint. The embody energy of the recycle powder in this study comes from the recycle procedures step 1 and 2 ( table 5 ). other steps, as common procedures for both recycle and virgo pins, are not included. figure 4 demonstrates the bulk and energy contribution of the extra resin and recycled powder in the recycle brake diggings materials. Recycled material accounts for 92 % of the total weight but consumes only 10 % of the energy in the material phase. It is expected to have a lower energy share by taking this protocol procedure into mass product .Figure 4 Mass percentage ( a ) and energy pulmonary tuberculosis share ( b ) of the recycle brake diggings fabric.
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Full size visualize To get a better horizon of the potential decrease in energy consumption and CO2 footprint from the systems position, the figures can be connected to the EU car flit. The numbers of passenger cars changes per class, but an average between 2012 and 2016 is calculated at 246 million cars per year 15. normally a car has four disk brakes, i.e. eight bracken pads in total. Assuming the following scenario for recycle :
- Life length of car 240,000 kilometer
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- All pads changed four times
- At least 25 % of the pads are recycled
This results in 1,968 million pads for material recycle, saving 13.9 billion MJ of energy or 6.2 million kilogram CO2 when comparing virgo produced pads with recycle pads, see table 2. The energy calculate can be related to energy pulmonary tuberculosis for heating and hot water in around 300,000 one- and two dwelling buildings in the class 2017 in Sweden 16. The emission of CO2 can be compared to the average emissions, 118.5 g/km from newly passenger cars in the EU in 2017 17, resulting in a transport length comparable to 1,300 times around the Earth. To be able to reuse the recycle brake pads into new pads, the material fundamental law of the friction layer needs to be known. consequently, the traceability is of great importance and a specific infrastructure for treatment with collect, sorting etc. must be developed. Another more direct solution is to use this recycle friction substantial as an underlayer material for production of new pads .