Recycling of worn out brake pads ‒ impact on tribology and environment

Recycling of worn out brake pads ‒ impact on tribology and environment
In order to evaluate the feasibility of recycling raddled brake pads, the foremost criterion to be fulfilled is that the recycle bracken embroider materials should possess alike bracken performance ( i.e. CoF, wear and particle generation rate ) as the virgo brake pad materials. The 23 factorial design for the tribological experiment has three factors, and each divisor has two levels. In decree to evaluate how the change in the component influences the reaction variables, the “ consequence ” of the factor is calculated. The “ effect ” of a divisor is the change in the reception variables as the factor moves from the “ − ” level to the “ + ” level. sometimes, the factors do not behave independently and are therefore said to “ interact ” 14. due to that three duplicate runs were conducted for each trial discipline ; the estimated effects and standard errors can be obtained as shown in table 3. By comparing the estimated effects with their standard errors, some items that require interpretation are highlighted in italics with brackets. other effects, however, remain unknown since they could be generated by the make noise. It should be noted that the interaction effects should be equally interpreted as the main effects .Table 3 Calculated effects and standard errors for the 23 factorial design. Full size board The factors speed ( S ) and atmospheric pressure ( P ) have the greatest effects on the CoF, and their interaction effect has a exchangeable influence. The factor material ( M ) seems not to strongly affect the CoF. however, its effect on the peg clothing is noteworthy and runs moment, good after the gene pressure ( P ). The factor speed ( S ) dominates the transfer in disk break and shows a potent interaction with factor pressure ( P ). For the atom number pace, all the independent effects and interaction effects are likely to contribute equally and it is unmanageable to distinguish the dominant ones. The three two-factor interactions have stronger effects on particle multitude rate than the person main effects. The consequence of most practical interest is that the factor fabric ( M ) is alone found to affect the pin wear, and its effects on other reception variables are not obtrusive. It should besides be noted that the chief impression of factor material ( M ) on pin wear is positive, indicating that the recycle peg sample ( − level in the design ) has lower break loss than the virgo peg sample ( + flat in the design ). In early words, the recycling operation did not degrade the performance of the brake pad material regarding CoF, wear and particle generation rate.

The other ask standard is that the environmental impacts ( i.e. energy consumption and CO2 footprint ) of recycling the raddled brake pads should not be higher than producing a new one. From table 2, the energy consumption and CO2 footprint of the recycle brake pads are 36 % and 34 % less than the virgo brake pads, respectively. It should be noted that the alone remainder between the recycle and virgo brake pads falls in the fabric stage. In other stages, the recycle and virgin brake pads yield identical environmental impacts. consequently, an elaborate probe into the material stage is conducted to analyse the causes of the abridge energy consumption and CO2 footprint. The embody energy of the recycle powder in this study comes from the recycle procedures step 1 and 2 ( table 5 ). other steps, as common procedures for both recycle and virgo pins, are not included. figure 4 demonstrates the bulk and energy contribution of the extra resin and recycled powder in the recycle brake diggings materials. Recycled material accounts for 92 % of the total weight but consumes only 10 % of the energy in the material phase. It is expected to have a lower energy share by taking this protocol procedure into mass product .Figure 4figure4 Mass percentage ( a ) and energy pulmonary tuberculosis share ( b ) of the recycle brake diggings fabric.

Full size visualize To get a better horizon of the potential decrease in energy consumption and CO2 footprint from the systems position, the figures can be connected to the EU car flit. The numbers of passenger cars changes per class, but an average between 2012 and 2016 is calculated at 246 million cars per year 15. normally a car has four disk brakes, i.e. eight bracken pads in total. Assuming the following scenario for recycle :

This results in 1,968 million pads for material recycle, saving 13.9 billion MJ of energy or 6.2 million kilogram CO2 when comparing virgo produced pads with recycle pads, see table 2. The energy calculate can be related to energy pulmonary tuberculosis for heating and hot water in around 300,000 one- and two dwelling buildings in the class 2017 in Sweden 16. The emission of CO2 can be compared to the average emissions, 118.5 g/km from newly passenger cars in the EU in 2017 17, resulting in a transport length comparable to 1,300 times around the Earth. To be able to reuse the recycle brake pads into new pads, the material fundamental law of the friction layer needs to be known. consequently, the traceability is of great importance and a specific infrastructure for treatment with collect, sorting etc. must be developed. Another more direct solution is to use this recycle friction substantial as an underlayer material for production of new pads .

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Category : Car Brakes