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Letter Of The Law vs. Spirit Of The Law

When discussing the law, there is one dilemma people frequently have. This predicament is : knowing the remainder between the letter of the jurisprudence and the spirit of the law .
The Letter of the Law is the misprint mean of the police ( the actual give voice of the law in the original text ). The Spirit of the Law is the captive or determination of the law ( what the law-maker intended the police to do ) .

Careless Driving and Its Consequences

The consequences of a collision, moving violations and/or an arrest due to careless driving are numerous. Below are a few examples :

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  • Damage to or loss of vehicle – AAA reported that collisions cost $164.2 billion each year, or $1,051 annually per person.
  • Injury or death to you, passengers, and/or others – The NHTSA reports that 37,133 people died in fatal traffic crashes across the US in 2017. California had the 2nd highest number of fatalities with 3,602 (though California ranked only 32nd in fatality rate when considering the amount of miles driven annually).
  • Possible auto insurance increase – The nationwide average insurance premium increase from getting just one traffic ticket is 18% annually.
  • Impact on quality of life – Consider just a few of the impacts to your quality of life when losing your vehicle, such as losing the freedom to get up and drive somewhere when you want to and instead spending your time arranging rides,

    calling taxis, or organizing your life around a bus schedule.

  • Other financial impacts (legal costs and/or DMV actions against license) – The cost of a major collision goes far beyond the mere cost of replacing/fixing your car and increased car insurance rates. Most collisions also involve heavy

    traffic violation fines, traffic school fees, court admin fees, license suspension reissue fees, lawyer fees, and doctor bills.

Equipment Failure

Automobiles, though increasingly safer and easier to operate, are still complex technical machines with hundreds of moving parts and intricate cybernate systems. On modal, equipment malfunction accounts for less than 5 % of all annual drive vehicle collisions, with the majority of breakdowns coming from flawed brakes, bad tires, and steering or suspension failures. Brake failure is more and more unlikely as most brakes have backup systems in place. To prevent tire failures such as blowouts, correct air blackmail and tread depth need to be carefully maintained. Steering and pause should be checked every 10,000 miles or so, as such malfunctions can lead to the inability to control your vehicle, which could be extremely black, particularly at high speeds .

The N.O.T.S. System (Negligent Operator Treatment System)

The N.O.T.S. system is kind of like a game of golf — the fewer points you have, the better you are doing. CVC 12810 dictates that all safety-related violations will count as either one or two points against you on your drive record. One-point violations stay on your record for 36 months. Most two-point violations will stay on your record for seven years, except any drunk drive misdemeanor will remain on your driving read for 10 years .
Some examples of a one-point irreverence include :

  • Normal moving violations, i.e.: unsafe lane change, failure to stop at a hold on augury, dim-witted speed, etc.
  • Any collision which the Department of Motor Vehicles has determined that you are at fault.
  • Failure to properly restrain a child (under 8 years of age, or shorter than 4 foot and 9 inches in height) in a child passenger restraint system or children under 16 years of age in an approved seat belt system.

Some examples of a two-point irreverence include :

  • Failure to stop in the event of a collision
  • Driving under the influence (DUI)
  • Conviction of reckless driving
  • Evading a police officer while recklessly driving
  • Driving on the wrong side of a roadway with a concrete divider
  • Driving in excess of 100 mph
  • Engaging in a Speed Contest / Exhibition of speed
  • Transporting explosives without the proper license
  • Vehicular manslaughter

notice : If the holder of a commercial driver license receives a moving misdemeanor in a non-commercial vehicle and attends traffic violator school, the point will not count towards the negligent hustler treatment system .
furthermore, besides receiving 2 points on your drive read, these traffic offenses can carry big fines and possible imprison clock. In fact, the express of California passes new legislation about every year enhancing the penalties for many of these major traffic offenses .
The adjacent obvious question is : How many points does it take to lose your license ?
just remember it this way :


“What are some alternatives to driving under the influence?”

The two most obvious alternatives are not drinking or doing drugs at all or not driving. If you ca n’t manage to abstain from drinking or doing drugs, or you have to drive, then you must decide on an intelligent alternative .

Designated Driver Program

many groups can organize a designate driver broadcast. A indicate driver is one individual who volunteers ( or is elected and agrees to ) not to drink any alcohol or do drugs, and to drive the group home safely. many restaurants, bars and other drink establishments participate in the Designated Driver Program by offering incentives to the designated driver, such as complimentary non-alcoholic beverages. If you decide to become your group ‘s designated driver, you must be prepared to not consume any alcoholic beverages throughout the duration of your come out of the closet. If you drink regularly with the same group of people, the designated driver duties can rotate. Remember, designated drivers are creditworthy for their stallion group .

Consequences of Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol and Other Drugs (DUI)

The affect on your driver ‘s license is severe. For a DUI conviction ( not causing injury or death ), the California Vehicle Code lists the adopt as abeyance periods depending on how many prior DUI offenses were committed ( within 10 years ) :

  • First-offense: up
    to six month’s suspension of your driver’s license
  • Second-offense: a two year suspension of your driver’s license; after half of the
    suspension is completed, the DMV shall advise the offender of the possibility
    of applying to the DMV for an ignition interlock restricted license
  • Third-offense: you
    must also participate in an alcohol treatment program
    and the court-imposed revocation period
    will be 10 years, with possible reinstatement after 5 years if specified conditions
    are met

Contributing Factors Can Cause Collisions

The majority of collisions can largely be credited to one or more of four factors : equipment failure, design of the roadway, road conditions, and driver conduct. While most drivers tend to blame the first three aforesaid factors for causing motive vehicle collisions, the truth is that improper driving behavior is the main fender-bender perpetrator. In fact, over 90 % of motor fomite crashes can be attributed chiefly to driver erroneousness .

Driver Behavior

When talking collision factors, 95 % of the conversation should be devoted to driver demeanor, because 95 % of collisions are at least partially due to driver error. When talking driver error, speed is normally the first discussion off of everyone ‘s natural language. even though speed is wide regarded as a dangerous drive behavior, 75 % of drivers promptly admit to speeding regularly. unfortunately, speeding motorists put themselves at great risk because they have less reaction time to respond to early collision factors, like early motorist ‘s drive errors, equipment failure, and poor roads .
aggressive drive is another poor drive habit that besides leads to patronize collisions. Practices like tailgating, making patronize lane changes, disregarding dealings controls, and failure to use turn signals are all examples of destructive driving behavior .
ignorance and inexperience can besides play a character in drivers getting themselves into muggy situations. Motorists who do not know the rules of the road, are uncomfortable driving in dealings, or miss confidence in decision make are besides debatable when behind the bicycle .
In about every case of a traffic collision, some sort of preventive standard could have saved the day, like having your tires checked regularly to help avoid blowouts, checking your mirrors and blind spots regularly, or maintaining safe speeds and space cushions with other vehicles to avoid crashes .

Anti-lock Brakes (ABS)

ABS systems sense the rotation of your car ‘s wheels and send that information to a calculator. If one bicycle is turning more lento than the others, the computer interrupts the brake pressure to that wheel, and only to that bicycle, astir to 18 times per second as needed. This is much faster than you could pump the bracken pedal yourself. This natural process allows the rack to keep turning. many drivers never experience ABS military action until an hand brake occur, and they normally interpret the normal ABS sounds and feelings as indications that the wheels are locked. The driver experiencing this foreign feeling then pumps the brake pedal from miss of education. This inexperience negates all of the twist logic designed into the ABS calculator .
ABS is intended for emergencies as a last repair. here are some pointers when driving an automobile with ABS :

  • Whenever you feel the bracken pedal pulse, press even harder. ABS may only be working on one wheel, so pressing harder ensures that ABS engages all four wheels.
  • Allow plenty of room between you and the car in front of you, anticipate, and brake early, just as you normally would.
  • Don’t drive more aggressively just because you have ABS.
  • Don’t deliberately try to activate your anti-lock braking system for ordinary stops under normal driving conditions.
  • Don’t turn every stop into an emergency.

ESC (Electronic Stability Control)

ESC systems help drivers stay on the road in hand brake situations by mechanically adjusting steering and braking systems to keep your vehicle on course. It does this by comparing the commission the driver is actually turning by reading the steering wheel position, the amount of sideways military unit in play, and vehicle focal ratio. ESC systems then mechanically reduce the engine torsion and apply accurate amounts of atmospheric pressure to the brakes, to enhance operate of the vehicle ‘s direction, helping it stay on course .

Preventing Rollovers and Other SUV Related Collisions

Load your SUV properly. The measure of cargo and the issue of passengers your SUV can carry safely is determined by the weight and distribution of the SUV. It is not determined by the number of items or people you can pack into it, even if the space is available. Check your owner ‘s manual to find out the demand amount of passengers and cargo weight your sport utility can carry safely .
Tire pressure and more. Overloading your SUV can lead to under performance of your tires and increase your chances of loss of see or rollover. Remember to check your tire imperativeness monthly and tread depth regularly, and keep them properly maintained by having them rotated and inspected in accord with your owner ‘s manual. besides, alone practice tires that are recommended by your manufacturer. Installing outsize tires will further increase your chances of a collision .


Driving Documentation Is In Order

here are some more agile tips and things to remember about your license, adjustment and insurance :

  • The DMV issues a regular driver license for a five-year term. Additionally, a driver license renewal period is also for a five-year term. Each license expires on the date shown on the license. It is against the law to drive after the

    license has expired.

  • You must have your driver license with you when you drive. Show it to any police officer who asks to see it. You must also show it to the other driver(s) involved if you are in a collision.
  • When you sell or transfer a vehicle, report it to DMV within 5 days.
  • The minimum total of indebtedness insurance coverage of 15/30/5, which is : $ 15,000 for a single death or injury, $ 30,000 for death or injury to more than one person, and $ 5,000 for place price caused by one collision
  • If you are involved in a collision without the minimum amount of acceptable financial responsibility, you may lose your driver’s license for up to four years!


communication with other drivers on the road is imperative mood, and no, using a cell phone is not what we are getting at. Rather, we define communication on the road as “ telegraphing ” your intentions to early drivers and pedestrians, while at the lapp prison term reading other people ‘s indicators so that you are all on the same page. Doing this helps provide coherence and chumminess on the road, minimizes confusion, and can help everyone avoid costly collisions .


The most significant thing is to be affected role, and keep your cool in traffic. Being patient and courteous to other drivers can actually reduce some of the frustration you might feel behind the wheel, american samoa well as that of early drivers .
hera are other basic tips to help you maintain that level of courtesy necessary to drive safely and not infuriate other drivers :
1. Stay off your cell telephone unless it is an emergency. nothing can cause instantaneous anger to those around you like driving 40 MPH in the fast lane of the expressway because you are unaware of your travel rapidly, or lack there of, ascribable to your cellular telephone telephone conversation .
2. If you like to drive at a slow yard, move into the veracious lane or pull into a turn-out if available. There are laws governing behind act vehicles, but you should besides think of the frustration this causes other drivers. The utmost speed on a highway you ‘re traveling on may be 55 miles per hour, but if there is more than one lane, merely move to one of the right-most lanes .
3. Try an alternate route. Driving the lapp everyday road to your place of work day-in and day-out can be mentally burdensome and other drivers will notice your frustration because it will be displayed by your driving habits. Try something different. A little kind ca n’t hurt .
4. Keep the kids happy. If you transport your kids to school or carpool with early kids, make sure you have plenty of items or toys to keep them occupied .
5. It ‘s better to be late than insecure. The consequences at make will decidedly not outweigh the consequences of a collision due to your accelerate and weaving through lanes or running a crimson light to get to work on prison term .
6. Avoid following other drivers besides closely, or tailgating .
7. Do n’t weave in and out of traffic lanes .
8. Always use your turn sign when changing lanes or making turns .
Courtesy is n’t just for when you ‘re driving-it can besides apply when you are parking your car. You should never :

  • Park in a space reserved for disabled drivers.
  • Take up two parking spaces.
  • Park in a fire lane.
  • Block a crosswalk, driveway, or emergency entrance.

A small courtesy goes a long direction !

Poor Decisions as a Result of Disregarding Law

As a driver, you have to regularly judge accelerate, distance and potential actions of early drivers. You besides need to make decisions regarding traffic laws, and know what to do even at uncontrolled intersections. Traffic laws aid to prevent collisions by regulating the rush, direction, and menstruate of traffic and pedestrians. If you measuredly disregard these laws, you endanger the safety of yourself and others, and are guilty of breaking the police .
Examples of intentionally disregarding traffic laws include :

  • Speeding and racing.
  • Tailgating.
  • Reckless driving/weaving in and out of lanes.
  • Failure to yield to emergency vehicles or other vehicles.
  • Running red lights and STOP signs.
  • Failure to stop at controlled railroad crossing with flashing lights.
  • Failure to stop for a school bus.

Leaving Children Unattended In Cars

In August of 2000, 6-month-old Kaitlyn Russell died of hyperthermia after being left in a avant-garde by her babysitter. The temperature in the van reached 130 degrees. This consequence, vitamin a well as the many other unnecessary deaths of young children who were left in unattended motor vehicles, has spurred our legislature to pass Kaitlyn ‘s Law. This law states that you may not leave a child that is 6 years of historic period or under ; unattended in a centrifugal fomite if there are conditions that present a risk, if the locomotive is running, or if the keys are left in the ignition. A child under the senesce of 6 years old may be left in a vehicle if a person 12 years of historic period or older is supervising that child. A fine of $ 100 will be levied for a irreverence of this jurisprudence vitamin a good as early fines and penalties authorized by existing laws related to child hazard .
Parents, caregivers, and drivers can help minimize potential in-car tragedies by taking the follow precautions :

  • NEVER leave the keys in the ignition when you are not in the car, even for a few seconds.
  • At home, keep your car keys in a safe place where children cannot reach them.
  • Always set the parking/emergency brake when parking.
  • Unattended car doors should always be locked.
  • If you drive a vehicle with manual transmission, never leave it in neutral.
  • Warn your kids that they should never get into the trunk of a car
  • ALWAYS make sure that your child is restrained in a DOT approved child seat until they are at least 8 years old or 4 feet 9 inches in stature
  • Make sure you do not place heavy items you may be transporting anywhere near your child as they may tip over
  • Educate your family, babysitters and friends about the dangers involved with leaving a young child alone in a car.

Rights and Responsibilities of a Pedestrian

As a pedestrian, you have responsibilities when you are on the road fair as motorists do. sometimes, a pedestrian must yield the right of way to a driver. You must constantly be mindful of vehicles sharing the roadway with you, stay alert at all times, and cross entirely in intend crosswalks or preferably, at a operate intersection .
Since pedestrians have the veracious of way at intersections and in mark crosswalks, drivers must yield the correct of way to them. When crossing at an intersection, obey all traffic signals and merely cross when the bespeak permits you to cross .

As A Driver

At all times when driving you need to be mindful of pedestrians, bicyclists and motorcycles on the road-Being on the alarm for pedestrians on the roadway can help reduce the number of injuries and fatalities each year .
CVC 21950 states : “ ( a ) The driver of a vehicle shall yield right-of-way to a pedestrian crossing the roadway within any tag crossing or within any unmarked crossing at an overlap … ( b ) This section does not relieve a pedestrian from the duty of using due wish for his or her guard. No pedestrian may on the spur of the moment leave a control or other position of safety and walk or run into the way of a vehicle that is so close as to constitute an immediate luck. No pedestrian may unnecessarily stop or delay dealings while in a score or unmarked crossing. ( deoxycytidine monophosphate ) The driver of a vehicle approaching a pedestrian within any distinguish or overlooked crossing shall exercise all due care and shall reduce the focal ratio of the fomite or take any other action relating to the process of the fomite as necessary to safeguard the guard of the pedestrian. ( d ) Subdivision ( bel ) does not relieve a driver of a vehicle from the duty of exercising due concern for the safety of any pedestrian within any distinguish crossing or within any overlooked crossing at an intersection. ”

Poor Vision

Night blindness

If you identify a electric potential hazard in your headlights, you can avoid it by stopping in meter. Compensate for poor night vision by slowing down, giving yourself time to identify and react to potential hazards on the road. Under ideal conditions, the average total break distance is four to five seconds at faster highway speeds .
besides, never look immediately into the headlights of an approach fomite. If another driver does not dim their lights, look towards the correctly edge of your lane .
note : Always make sure your windshield and mirrors are clean and exempt of debris .

Depth perception

This is your ability to judge distance, not only ahead of you, but all around your fomite. Keep your distance from other vehicles, and watch the accelerate of approaching vehicles. The best strategy is to avoid exit hand turns whenever possible if you have hapless depth perception .

Knowing When Not to Drive

The attitudes that drivers have on the road have a bunch to do with the attitudes they bring into the car with them. Your aroused state will dictate your actions in the car. The fewer problems you bring in, the fewer problems you will experience on the road. In this part we will discuss some of the aspects of stress and emotions and how they affect your ability to drive safely. A person ‘s genial and emotional state can not be separated from the physical one. A healthy person will react better to stress and other aroused problems that may arise than an unhealthy person .

Sleep – Tiredness While Driving (Getting Rest)

How dangerous is a sleepy driver ? A sleepy driver is about as bad a driver as person who ‘s driving while intoxicated. Sleepiness slows chemical reaction time, decreases awareness and impair judgment, fair like drugs or alcohol. And just like drugs or alcohol, sleepiness can contribute to a collision. many people believe that playing brassy music, rolling down the window or having conversations with a passenger are dependable ways to stay alert. The fact is, the best room not to fall asleep at the wheel is to pull over in a well-lit, populate, safe area and get some rest. The measure of sleep one should get varies from person to person, but it can be said that you should feel well rested after a well napoleon. While traveling with another driver it would be judicious to switch off driving and not allow the other passengers to doze while you drive. sleepiness can become catching .


It should be obvious that when you take drugs ( whether prescription or otherwise ) or alcohol, it greatly influences how you feel and how you behave. Hunger, thirst, or even having to “ go to the bathroom ” will affect your driving ability. Being “ clean ” when we drive is essential for the safe operation of a cable car, as being under the influence of even a small total of drugs or alcohol can affect astuteness percept, speed perception, coordination, reaction time and sight, all of which are critical to driving .

Identifying and Responding to Hazards

Identify Hazards Early

By looking ahead 10-15 seconds, you can detect any hazards that might affect your force. For case, if you see vehicle brake lights or stall vehicles ahead, then you can prepare to stop. In addition, if you see emergency vehicles or hand brake hazards, then it ‘s probably a good sign that something is happening up ahead. In this shell, you can prepare by slowing down or changing lanes as necessary. besides, you should be mindful of possible escape routes, such as traverse streets and exits .

Conditions are Beyond Driving Ability (Self-Regulation)

More and more, today’s tug schools and defensive drive institutions are teaching self-regulation to drivers of all ages. The hypothesis is elementary : the more self-acting drivers on the road, the dependable the roads will be. For young, inexperienced drivers, self-regulation can indeed be a life saver. here are some common self-regulation practices :

  • Limiting your night
    driving (this is the most widespread form of self-regulation)
  • Limiting your driving
    during bad weather
  • Choosing routes that
    avoid congestion, construction, and difficult traffic scenarios
  • Driving in the lane
    you are most comfortable with (i.e. driving in the slower lanes or not driving
    in the lane directly adjacent to parked cars)
  • Not making optional
    right turns at red traffic lights
  • Limiting the volume
    on your radio so you can better hear traffic and emergency vehicles
  • Parking towards the
    back of parking lots where it is less congested



In general when back, it is best to back up angstrom fiddling as necessary to get the job done. When you are backing up, your visibility is limited. You ca n’t see angstrom well when you are backing as you can when you are driving forward. It stands to rationality that you are more probable to hit something when you are backing up .

Check Behind the Vehicle
Before Getting In

Watch out for children and pets, and little objects that may be behind your fomite. Children should never be left neglected around parked cars. Prior to entering your car, expression for children behind your fomite. Inform them that you are going to back up, and to move off from the area. Before you back up, check your mirrors and look over your shoulder as you back up. Keep your pace of amphetamine as dense and safe as possible by using the brake bicycle .

S.M.O.G. Technique

many people have a problem with safe lane-changing. The SMOG proficiency is designed to assist you in lane change. SMOG just means :

  • Signal —- Indicate your intentions. The law (CVC 22108) states that you must indicate a change of direction at least 100 feet before you actually change directions.
  • Mirror — — Check your mirrors to make surely that there is no traffic approaching from the raise .
  • Over-the-shoulder — — glance over your shoulder to make certain your blind descry is well-defined .
  • Go —- When you’ve determined the lane is clear, gradually change lanes remembering to maintain your speed so that you don’t interfere with the traffic already in the intended lane.


If excrete is necessity, then you should make certain to take the pursue steps. First, determine if there is the electric potential for a dangerous passing situation, such as a retentive line of cars ahead. scan for hazards — such as oncoming cars, vehicles approaching from the rise, and merging vehicles. Decide if the cable car ahead is at or near the accelerate limit, or if your vision is restricted ahead. adjacent, determine if it is wholly safe to pass by looking for a condom distance ahead, identify an end-of-pass break to pull back into, establish a safe reply meter for hazards, and make surely the road conditions are dependable. ultimately, scan for hazards again, check blind spots, signal purpose, addition speed, read for hazards one more time, create a return quad, signal, and enter the lane safely. The California Driver Handbook recommends that before returning into the driving lane while performing a pass maneuver, be certain you are n’t perilously close to the car you have passed. One manner to do this is to look for the cable car you are passing in the rear view mirror. When you can see the front of the car ( or both headlights ), you have enough room to return to the driving lane safely .

Left Turn Center Lane

here you may turn left or make a U-turn so farseeing as you enter it beginning ( you may not travel more than 200 feet in this lane, and the zone must be OK ), but you may not pass in it. You may not park your vehicle in this lane .

Traffic Signal Blackout

If a world power failure occurs and all signals are not working by rights, treat the intersection the lapp as you would if a stop sign were controlling the intersection .

Hydroplaning And How To Recover

Hydroplaning is the condition where your car is literally floating on a layer of water. If you start to hydroplane, you need to slow down. Do this by merely taking your metrical foot off the accelerator. Do n’t use the brakes ! Slowing down will allow the tires to regain contact with the road and restore control to the driver. sudden movements, such as brake or jerking the steer roulette wheel, can compound the problem, and normally will put the vehicle into a spin. Again, this is why it is imperative to leave supernumerary space in front of you when driving on a besotted road .

Tire Tread Depth

CVC 27465b states that the minimal permissible tread depth of your tires is 1/32 of an edge. This is the absolute minimum. You should consider replacing your tires before you reach the minimum allowable step depth. Tire tread is crucial because the grooves in between the step act as a canal for the water system on the road to pass through, consequently allowing the actual tread to come in contact with more of the road open .

Recovering From Fishtailing

A fishtail skid occurs when the raise end of your vehicle begins to slide back and forth due to your back wheels losing grip with the ground. Fishtailing can happen in any type of vehicle, but is more coarse in rear wheel repel vehicles .
If you do fishtail, the first thing to remember is NOT to slam on the brakes. alternatively, take your foot off the gas and stop accelerate. In addition, keep a steady firm handle on the guide wheel and never yank the wheel or yaw in a panic. To recover from the fishtail skid, the traditional govern is to “ turn into the skid ” or to turn your rack the direction that you feel your raise wheels sliding. however, this can frequently be confusing to drivers, particularly when reacting in the heat of the moment of a brake shoe .


Dips are basically “ top down bumps ”. Before encountering a dip, slow down enough to avoid “ bottoming-out ” ( scraping the bottomland of your cable car on the pavement ). Driving excessively promptly over a dip is not only tough on your cable car ‘s suspension, it can cause you to lose command of your car .


Maintaining a safe following distance

An crucial cardinal in avoiding collisions is leaving the proper amount of following distance behind the vehicle in front man of you. It is critical for you to be able to stop in time to avoid a collision. As stated earlier, one of the lead causes of collisions on the expressway is following besides closely ( tailgating ) .
When determining the measure of space you should leave, you must take into consideration the postdate elements :

The road

  • A wet
    road has a friction coefficient that is half that of a dry road (it actually
    takes twice as long to stop a car on a wet road than on a dry one).
  • Loose
    gravel or sand on the road will also increase the distance it takes for the
    car to stop.

The condition
of the brakes and/or type of brakes you have:

  • Maintenance
    of your brakes is critical to reducing your stopping distance.
  • Anti-lock
    brakes, used properly, can help the average driver reduce stopping distance.

The incline
of the road you are on:

  • A downhill
    grade will make the braking distance increase.
  • An uphill
    grade will make gravity work with you and help your car stop sooner.

Stopping Distances

When considering the proper come of following distance you should leave, you must realize the sum of distance your car will travel when you make the decision that you need to come to a complete discontinue. The equation for figuring out this outdistance is as follows :
Thinking Distance + Braking Distance = Total Stopping Distance.

Three-Second Rule

A normally used method acting for allowing yourself proper following outdistance is the “ Three-Second rule. ” Since it is unmanageable to visually estimate the distance in between your car and the car ahead of you, the idea is to use fourth dimension alternatively to leave a “ cushion ” or space. It takes about 2-3 seconds to completely stop when traveling at speeds between 35 miles per hour to 65 miles per hour, indeed if you have a three-second space shock absorber, you ‘re leaving yourself adequate clock to react and brake when something happens up ahead. This is how to apply the “ Three-Second principle ” : when the cable car or truck in front of you crosses a certain sterilize object on the slope of the road, ( like a sign or tree ) you should not cross that same point for three seconds. Just count “ one thousand one, one thousand two, one thousand three. ” If you reach that fixed position before you get to three, you are not leaving adequate of a “ cushion. ”

Three-Second PLUS Rule

Under many driving conditions, the “ Three-Second rule ” works great and should give you plenty of time and space to avoid a collision, but sometimes you may need to add extra space to the follow distance equation, and this is called the “ Three-Second PLUS Rule ”. here are some instances when you need to leave extra space and increase your following distance to four or more seconds :

  • When Adverse Roadway Or Weather Conditions Exist : Remember, braking distance doubles on a wet road. Therefore, to compensate for the loss of traction, the California DMV Handbook recommends that you drive a minimum of

    5-10 mph slower and increase your following distance.

  • When Being Tailgated: If a driver is following too closely you should slow down and increase your following distance so that you will have more time to react if the car in front of you is forced to suddenly stop. As a result, you give

    the driver behind you more time to react since they will be traveling at a slower speed.

  • When Towing a Trailer: The added weight of the trailer being towed will increase the vehicle’s stopping distance. Therefore, in order to compensate, you should increase your following distance.
  • When Following a Motorcycle: Since a motorcycle can stop quicker than a car, it is imperative to keep extra space in front of your vehicle.
  • When Vision Is Blocked Or Visibility Poor: When your view ahead is blocked, such as when you drive behind an 18-wheeler or large van, you need to leave more space for better reaction time. You could also change lanes to open up your

    field of vision.

  • When You See a Bus, School Bus, Or a Placarded Vehicle At Railroad Crossings: These vehicles must stop at railroad crossings, so slow down early and allow plenty of room.
  • The Driver Behind You Wants To Pass. When the driver behind is signaling with an intention to pass, allow room in front of your vehicle so the driver will have space to move in front of you.

You may find that slower accelerate situations, such as driving 25 miles per hour in a residential zone, may call for lowering your following distance to two seconds ; but it is obvious that the more space you keep, the less casual you have of getting into a collision .

Managing Visibility

Make Yourself Visible

Keep your vehicle where it can be seen at all times. Drive through another driver ‘s blind blemish angstrom cursorily as you can or drop rear .

Use your signals

It is necessary to indicate your intentions to other drivers well in boost. Let other drivers know that you plan to turn or change lanes by signaling early. The flash signal light will warn those around you that you plan to make a tactic. Use your signals at least 100 feet prior to making a turn to allow other drivers to adjust their actions consequently. When you are turning right or left at an intersection, be very careful not to signal excessively early on if there are early places to turn before the overlap. A driver in another roadway who believes you intend to turn somewhere else could pull out in front of you .

Visual Lead Time (Looking Ahead)

The path you choose will depend on what you see ahead. This method acting of looking farther down the road is called ocular lead meter. To establish proper ocular lead time on a city street, you should be looking at least 15 seconds ahead, which will work out to be at least a block ahead ( about 600 feet ). On the highway, you should besides be looking at least fifteen seconds ahead american samoa well, which works out to be at least one-fourth of a mile ahead. Remember, the problems that happen on the road ahead will finally affect you, so you should try to see them in batch of time so you will have enough time to react to them .
Driving can much be humdrum, particularly when traveling hanker distances, causing drivers to form the bad habit of staring at one particular thing up ahead, like the road or the bumper of the car immediately in front of them. Try not to develop a situate stare ; rather, look beyond the car or cars ahead of you. If something happens up ahead, you want to see the event happen. The brake lights of the car immediately ahead of you alone do not make a good adequate early admonition system .
Another profit of ocular run time is that you will stay in the center of your lane. Have you ever tried to gauge where you are in your lane by looking side-to-side ? It ‘s hard. By aiming for the “ ocular vanishing point ” of the road ahead, it is easier to guide your vehicle in the center of the lane .

Planning An Evasive Action (Leaving Yourself An Out)

sometimes you do everything right, and something hush happens correctly in front of you. This is why it is indeed important for you to be constantly looking for an “ get off route ” or somewhere to go if there is a trouble. When you are driving and there is person in presence, behind, and to both sides of you, if something were to happen in front of you, where would you go ? You are literally “ boxed in ! ”
Leaving yourself an elude path means precisely that. When you are driving, you should be mindful of all of the “ space cushions ” around you to make collision avoidance potential. Another expression of this leaving yourself an out is in vehicle position. If you are driving in a lane on the expressway with the center divider on one side ( the number one lane — some call it the “ fast lane ” ), then you have cut your “ chances for escape ” to the side by one-half ! Always military position your vehicle in a way which is advantageous to “ escape. ”

In Front Of Your Vehicle

Leaving the proper amount of following distance behind the vehicle in movement of you is critical for you to be able to stop in fourth dimension to avoid a collision. One of the run causes of collisions on the expressway is following excessively closely ( tailgating ) .

To the Left and Right Sides of Your Vehicle

Remember to leave yourself an ‘escape route ‘ in the lanes beside yours. Continue to adjust your accelerate so that you do not drive directly beside another vehicle ( side-by-side drive ). This blocks the roadway for drivers behind you, and leaves no wall socket for you or drivers next to you in the event of an hand brake .

To the Rear of Your Vehicle

You besides need to be aware of distance of vehicles behind yours. If the driver behind you is following besides close, slenderly tapping your brakes may alert the early driver to increase their come outdistance. besides, switch lanes if possible .
If person starts to tailgate you ( takes up your “ quad shock absorber ” to the buttocks ), allow more space in front of you so that you will have more time to slow down if there is a problem in front of you .
Keeping “ quad cushions ” around your vehicle at all times is a unmanageable serve. When there is space on the expressway, it normally gets filled. consequently, you may not have the necessary space you need at all times. You must be mindful of this. “ Space cushion ” drive is a ceaseless accelerate and decelerate technique, attempting to maintain the proper gaps around your car. Do n’t get discouraged when your quad gets filled ; fair find yourself more space. Before you know it, this process will finally become a habit in your day by day task of drive .

Tips to help you share the road with large trucks:

  • Do n’t cut them off. Fully loaded trucks can weigh up to 27 times more than the average automobile. That means a much longer stopping distance- up to twice the time and room compared to a car. Forcing them to stop quickly

    may cause a serious collision.

  • Beware of blind spots. Often called “no-zones”, they’re around the front, back and sides of trucks. Move out of these areas because truck drivers may lose sight of you. As a general rule-if you can’t see the truck

    driver in the truck’s mirror, he/she can’t see you.

  • Leave a “cushion”. When following a truck, stay about 20-25 car lengths behind. This will better allow you to see the road ahead. This also leaves more room for braking. A safe driving distance in front of a truck is at least four car

    lengths. Make sure you can see the truck’s headlights in your inside rear-view mirror.

  • Pass quickly and on the left. Avoid passing on the right, where the truck driver’s blind spot encompasses the entire trailer and expands to multiple lanes. Proceed in the left lane. Do so quickly, moving through the blind spot and avoid

    being “trapped” next to the truck. Merge to the right once you see the front of the truck in your rear-view mirror.

  • Watch for wide turns. Don’t get stuck between the truck and the curb-which may result in a serious collision. In order to safely make a right turn, the truck driver is likely to swing wide left first. This is especially true in the city.

    With left turns, trucks need plenty of room to clear your vehicle. Help them out by stopping before the white line.

  • Signals are key. Pay close attention to a hand truck ‘s signals-allowing adequate room for it to maneuver. And make sure to use your signals. Truck drivers need to know your intended actions.

( source : Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration )


Because of their small size and moo profile, motorcycles can be easily hidden from position, particularly in your vehicle ‘s blind spot. Remember to check your blind spot frequently to make surely you can see a motorbike that may be in the adjacent lane, specially if you are planning to maneuver into that lane .

Continuously Scan the Road

It is very crucial to continuously be moving your eyes to scan the road for likely hazards. Your attention couple and concentration floor is about directly proportional to the measure that your eyes are moving. constant eye movement will keep your attention level high .

Keys to Defensive Driving: Anticipate Others Actions

The things around you on the roadway, sidewalk, driveways, parks, and the like will decidedly affect the safe path of your vehicle. Staying alarm and focused in your driving environment will allow you to properly anticipate the actions of others. This last samara is critical for determining what conflicts are in your driving environment, how they may affect you, and what you can do to avoid the electric potential problems they may create .
An crucial defensive drive method acting that helps in anticipating the actions of others has been termed the “ IPDE ” proficiency.

This means :


  • Identify the potential problem.
  • Predict how the potential problem will affect you.
  • Decide what things you can do to avoid the potential problem.
  • Execute the maneuver that best avoids the potential problem.

Enhancing Driving With Aids

The use of defensive driving aids can besides serve to greatly enhance condom drive practices. The following driving aids can play an important part in your bay to be a collision-free driver :

  • Use of sunglasses : All drivers should keep a pair of good quality sunglasses in their car at all times. Seeing that driving is a highly visual activity, it is vital to be able to see when the sunlight is blinding. This

    is especially true during sunrise and sunset hours when the sun shines directly into your field of vision or glares off of your rearview mirror. Of course, don’t forget to take off your sunglasses after dusk has passed.

  • consumption of car designed water repellent on windshield : Rain, snow, and other precipitation pose a variety of problems for motorists, one of those issues being decreased visibility. Using a water repellent designed for automobiles

    on your windshield can improve the clarity of vision by resisting water drops when it rains. Water repellent solvents adhere to a glass windshield, leaving a layer of repellent that not only fends off water, but also helps more easily remove other windshield

    pests like ice, bugs, and road salt.

  • Using convex and/or bird’s-eye mirrors :Using additional car mirrors is another great defensive driving tool. By using convex or panoramic mirrors, drivers can improve driving safety by helping to reduce blind spots and

    increasing overall vision of the traffic behind them. These mirrors usually are installed easily over existing mirrors and are great assets for those who find it difficult to turn their head and look over their shoulder. Convex “fisheye mirrors” or “bubble

    mirrors” usually adhere to the side-view mirror and can bring blind spots into view. It should be noted that a convex mirrors optical properties can cause distortion that makes it more difficult to judge distances. Panoramic rear-view mirrors broaden the rear

    view range and also provide coverage of rear-quarter blind spots.

  • Using an audible back-up warning device: According to the child safety advocacy group Kids and Cars, at least two children are killed and another 50 are hurt in back-over collisions each week. An audible back-up warning system could

    help eliminate such tragedies by alerting a reversing driver if a concealed object is in their path. Audible warning devices either beep or provide voice warnings when an object, moving or stationary, is within a certain distance of the vehicle’s rear bumper.

    When used in conjunction with back-up cameras, audible warning systems can be even more effective.

Planning Trips And Preparing For The Road


Hopefully you wo n’t run into any driving snafu on your trip ( knock on wood ), but if you do, who knows when and where your car will choose to break down. Do n’t get get ill-equipped for this unfortunate occasion ; rather be prepared by having an car guard change of location kit packed and cook to go :

  • Navigation system and/or maps
  • Cell phone and car charger to call for help
  • First-aid kit
  • Extra clothes and blankets
  • A flashlight
  • Emergency flares
  • Jumper cables
  • Extra washer fluid
  • Jug of water
  • Basic tools (screw driver, wrench, pocket knife, etc.)

besides, loading your car wisely can provide both safety and economic benefits. When you load your fomite, do n’t pack things so high gear that you block your windows and lose authoritative visibility. Make indisputable everything is packed securely and won’t go flying into the back of your lead if you have to brake abruptly. For maximal cover, try to distribute the weight of your load evenly. And to save a few bucks on gas, get all that trash out of the trunk – that is, entirely bring what is necessity : the heavier your vehicle, the more it costs to drive it .

Check Road Conditions

Before you hit the road, do n’t forget to hit your darling source for checking road conditions. There are a kind of web sites, both local and national, that can provide invaluable traffic resources designed to aid you on your digression. You can well look up information like :

  • Weather reports
  • Traffic congestion reports
  • Road construction zones
  • Accident reports
  • Road closures
  • Safety warnings

Besides the internet, tuning into your favored television receiver news program mercantile establishment or news radio post can provide beneficial road condition information .

Vehicle Inspection

Before you leave town, particularly on longer trips, make sure you give your vehicle a exhaustive guard judgment. If you ‘re not comfortable maintaining your car yourself, hit the local anesthetic garage or your franchise to get your ride quick for the retentive catch. many dealers will actually give you a basic safety inspection dislodge of charge ! Make sure your tires are in tip-top form and do n’t forget to check your tire imperativeness : properly inflated tires go a long way in improving fuel economy and preventing dangerous tire blow outs. besides, have your fluids checked and topped-off, including your radiator fluid, wiper fluid, and oil – which may need to be adjusted depending on your season of travel. then have the rest of your cable car given a courteous once over, making certain all the belts are in good function order, the wipers are cook to clean bugs off your windshield, and that your battery wo n’t die on you while you ‘re in Timbuktu .

Allowing Extra Time

When you travel, do n’t cause yourself extra stress or forfeit guard by being in a first-come-first-serve. When taking a trip, particularly a drawn-out one, you will inevitably encounter some challenges that you did not expect. Allowing yourself supernumerary time to reach your finish is a big way to reduce road anxiety, and allows you to actually enjoy the hundreds or thousands of miles you are driving. not to mention that you wo n’t feel compelled to speed, drive recklessly, and make several unnecessary lane changes to pass slower moving vehicles. other benefits of not being in a rush include having time to stop for remainder, sit down for a courteous meal, take a toilet break, or possibly do some unexpected sightseeing along the way .
finally, for safety ‘s sake, let a ally or other syndicate member know where you ‘re going, where you plan to stay, and when you ‘ll be back family. Keep these helpful travel tips in take care, and you ‘ll be well on your way to a safe and rewarding travel of driving enlightenment .


Knowing The Speed Laws

There are four major speed laws that you should be aware of : the Basic Speed Law, the Maximum Speed Law, the Prima Facie Speed Law, and the Minimum Speed Law .

The Basic Speed Law

California law (CVC 22350) states:
“ No person shall drive a vehicle upon a highway at a accelerate greater than is reasonable or prudent having due esteem for weather, visibility, the traffic on, and the open and width of, the highway, and in no consequence at a speed which endangers the condom of persons or property. ”
What this police means is : at no fourth dimension should you drive faster than the conditions of the weather and road let, regardless of what the post rush limit or maximum accelerate sign may say. You have to decide, then, what the safest rush would be under the prevail conditions .

The Maximum Speed Law

According to CVC 22349 : “ …. no person shall drive a vehicle upon a highway at a speed greater than 65 miles per hour. ”
It should be noted that even if it is posted as 65 mph or higher, the following
must never drive in excess of 55 mph:

  • A
    motor truck or truck tractor with three or more axles
  • Any
    vehicle towing a trailer or another vehicle
  • A
    school bus carrying any student(s)

The Prima Facie Speed Law

California law (CVC 22352)
The words “ leading facie ” are in Latin – the target translation is “ beginning side. ” In practical use it has been translated as ( among other things ) “ on the confront of it. ” The Prima Facie Speed Law says in effect, that unless post differently, all places have a “ focal ratio limit ” even when one is not posted. even though an area does not have a signal posted, it does not mean that you can drive “ a fast as you want to. ”
Some examples of Prima Facie speeds include :
15 Miles per hour

  • Through an uncontrolled subterfuge railway ford. A blind railroad crossing is where a driver’s view is obstructed for 400 feet in either direction during the last 100 feet approaching a railroad crossing which is not

    controlled by a crossing gate, a warning signal, or a flag person.

  • Through an uncontrolled blind intersection. A blind intersection is where a driver’s view is obstructed for 100 feet in either direction during the last 100 feet approaching an intersection which is not controlled by

    stop signs, traffic control signals, or a yield sign.

  • In any alley. An alley is defined as a street which is no more than 25 feet in width which is used primarily for rear or side access by the owners of the property aligning the alley.

25 Miles per hour

  • In any clientele or residential district (unless it is posted otherwise).
  • When passing a school construction or grounds next to a highway, where it is posted “ SCHOOL ” when children are present ( coming or going ) either before, after or during the recess hour. This besides applies if the educate is not separated from the street by a fence, gate or early similar barrier while in use by children. The 25 MPH rush limit with deference to educate grounds is besides applicable when approaching or passing within 500 feet of the school grounds .
  • When passing a senior center or facility next to a highway when it is posted “SENIOR.”

The Minimum Speed Law

CVC 22400 states: “ ( a ) No person shall drive upon a highway at such a slow focal ratio as to impede or block the normal and reasonable apparent motion of dealings, unless the reduce focal ratio is necessary for safe operation, because of degree, or in complaisance with police. No person shall bring to a complete check upon a highway so as to impede or block the convention and fair movement of traffic unless the hold on is necessary for safe operation or in conformity with law. ”
This can be interpreted as meaning that you should travel at a rate of accelerate that is coherent with the normal menstruation of traffic. It besides means that you should not stop your car in a lane of traffic. If you were on the expressway, under normal dealings and weather conditions, and the flow of traffic was at 55 miles per hour, and you were traveling at 45 miles per hour, you could be cited for violating the minimal amphetamine law. If you were traveling down a street and you stopped your car in the traffic lane to look for an address, pick up a passenger, or to drop a letter in the mail box, you could besides be ticketed .


Left Turns

Make certain to begin the leave turn in the left-most lane, a close as possible to the center partition tune or the leave turn lane if available. Begin signaling 100 feet anterior to your turn, alerting others of your planned maneuver. Never turn your steering wheel to the left in progress of turning. If you turn your wheel to the forget and are rear-end, your car may enter the onset traffic lanes. besides, do not turn excessively soon, cutting the corner of the lane belonging to cars coming toward you. When completing your left turn, you may turn into any available lane of the cross street if it is condom to do so. If vehicles are turning correct from opposing traffic, those turning right have the right-of-way into their corresponding lanes. Before completing your turn, make indisputable that your lane is free of traffic .
When View Is Blocked: Never make a leave turn if your opinion is blocked or restricted. Wait until you have as clear a see as possible, then proceed lento, only after you have determined that the roadway is clear of pedestrians, vehicles, bicyclists or animals. besides, quite frequently the car behind you will sound its horn or flash its headlights to rush you into making a leave hand turn. The best advice is to ignore the car behind you. Never begin turning until you are 100 % convinced that a left-hand turn can be performed safely .

Right Turns

Make certain to begin the turning in the right-most lane, equally close up as possible to the right-hand curb or boundary of the road. Do not turn out besides wide. Remain a close as practical to the right, and stay in the correctly lane until you have finished your turn. If vehicles are turning left from opposing traffic, those turning right have the right-of-way ; but remember never to insist on it. Watch out for wide-turning trucks in front of you ; never try to make the switch off in between .


CVC 22103 states, “ No person in a residence district shall make a u-turn when any other vehicle is approaching from either direction within 200 feet, except at an intersection when the approach vehicle is controlled by an official traffic restraint device. ”

Where U-turns are Illegal

You may not make a U-turn in front man of a fire post. besides, you may not make a U-turn in a business district unless through an open at a divide highway or at any intersection. If you are in doubt about whether the U-turn is legal, just proceed to an intersection. The law says that you can make a U-turn at any intersection equally long as it is not posted otherwise .

Right-of-Way Rules

CVC 525 states: “ ‘Right-of-way ‘ is the prerogative of the immediate function of the highway. ”
You must always yield right-of-way to emergency vehicles, pedestrians, people with white canes, and anywhere a render sign is posted to direct you .

Dealing With Wrong-Way Drivers

If you encounter a wrong-way driver, rend to the english of the road if condom and give the other driver the handiness to correct his/her err .

Driver Distractions

Distracted repel is a major problem on today ‘s roads. This course will go into more detail about this issue in the adjacent section, but according to the California Highway Patrol, the stick to is a list of the top five types of distractions that result in collisions on California ‘s highways :

  • Cell Phones
  • Using the radio or CD
  • Children
  • Eating
  • Reading

What to Do in a Collision

If you leave the setting of a collision where you were involved without stopping to identify yourself, then you are breaking the law ( hit and run ). If you can placid drive your car and if no one is badly injured or killed, move your cable car off the roadway and out of traffic. here ‘s what to do :

  1. Stop and Clear Roadway
  2. Warn Others
  3. Help the Injured
  4. Contact the Police
  5. Exchange Information
  6. Gather Witness Information
  7. Report the Collision to the DMV
  8. See Your Doctor

Every collision situation is different, so you must take the proper steps to deal with each detail scenario. The key to doing this is remaining calm. Do n’t let your emotions take over and start yell at the driver who hit you, attempting to determine who was at fault. That ‘s the last thing you want to do if you are involved in a collision .

the collision to the DMV

If there is more than $ 1000 in property damage or injury ( no matter the asperity ) or death resulting from the collision, you must report the collision to the DMV within 10 days. This is done by filling out the SR-1 Traffic Accident Report form. This form can be obtained from any DMV, patrol station or from most insurance companies. failure to report a collision to the DMV could result in a monetary fine and/or the personnel casualty of your driving privilege .

See your

Some injuries are not noticeable right off, so tied if you ‘ve been treated at the scenery of the collision, it ‘s still a good theme to get yourself checked out thoroughly .

Hitting a parked car

If you ca n’t find the owner of the car, you are required to leave a note either in the damaged vehicle or securely attached to it. On this note write your name, telephone number, and cover .


What is the difference between road rage and aggressive driving?

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration ( NHTSA ) states that aggressive drive occurs when “ an individual commits a combination of moving traffic offenses so as to endanger other persons or property ”. Examples include speeding or driving besides fast for conditions, improper lane change, tailgating and improper sink. Road fury, on the other hand, is defined by NHTSA as “ an attack with a motor vehicle or other dangerous weapon by the operator or passenger ( sulfur ) of another motor vehicle or an rape precipitated by an incident that occurred on a roadway ”. It is important to distinguish the remainder when discussing aggressive drive and road rage. In basic terms, aggressive drive is the break of traffic laws WITHOUT the intent to cause harm to another, while road rage is a criminal umbrage WITH the intent of causing injury or death. Keep in mind that aggressive drive can easily escalate into an incident of road rage .
basically, road rage happens when one driver lets another driver know that he or she is disquieted and angry because of some action the other driver committed. When people express this anger through means of tailgating, weaving through lanes, honking, screaming, or exchanging insults this is not road ramp, but examples of aggressive drive. a soon as the driver or passengers of a motor fomite start making these dealings maneuvers with the purpose of causing damage or even begin brandishing or using a weapon is when this behavior rises to the charge of road rage. Those people that succumb to road rage normally do sol because of a feel of anonymity and might. Driving behind the wheel of a 3,000-pound vehicle frequently makes people feel invincible. Experts suggest that aggressive drive and road fad is on the surface for respective simple reasons : more people, more cars, more dealings and more delays result in more frustration .

Strategies To Help Control Anger & Frustration

A low tolerance for frustration can cause people to become easily angered. Some people just feel that they should not have to be subjected to frustration, annoyance, or trouble. They ca n’t take things in stride, and they ‘re particularly infuriate if the position seems somehow unfair. The stick to are some basic tips to help curb wrath and frustration :

  • slack-Simple tools, such as meditation, deep breathing or listening to a calming CD, can help calm down angry feelings. There are many publications and courses (such as yoga) that can help you learn relaxation techniques,

    and once you learn the techniques, you can call upon them in any situation.

  • Dealing with problems-Anger can often be caused by very serious issues in our lives, either at home, on the job or both. The key here is to not necessarily focus on finding a solution to the specific issue, but rather on how you deal

    with and face the problem. Get a strategy together (writing it down may help) and solve the issue to the best of your ability. If you give it your best shot, that’s half the battle and you’ll probably not be as frustrated if it happens again.

  • Make an environment change-Since our immediate surroundings can often be the cause for irritation, try and give yourself a break. Make sure you have some scheduled time to yourself for times of the day that you know

    are particularly stressful. Here’s an example: when you come home from work, for the first 15 minutes, institute a “nobody talks to you unless the house is on fire” rule. After this brief quiet time, you’ll feel better and you’ll be able to handle demands

    from your kids without blowing up at them.

  • Communicate better-Frustrated people often tend to jump to conclusions during tense conversations or circumstances without thinking through the impact of their words or actions. Slow down. Think through what you are

    doing or saying and don’t let a negative situation or conversation get the best of you.

  • Here are some additional
    tips to help you handle those daily frustrations that may cause you to drive
    aggressively and may even lead to road rage:

    • Concentrate. Don’t
      allow yourself to become distracted by talking on your cellular phone, eating,
      drinking or putting on makeup.
    • Relax. Tune the
      radio to your favorite relaxing music. Music can calm your nerves and help
      you to enjoy your time in the car.
    • Drive the Posted
      Speed Limit.
      Fewer crashes occur when vehicles are traveling at or about
      the same speed.
    • Identify Alternate
      Try mapping out an alternate route. Even if it looks longer on
      paper, you may find it is less congested.
    • Use Public Transportation.
      Public transportation can give you some much-needed relief from life behind
      the wheel.
    • Just be Late.
      If all else fails, just be late.

What should you do when confronted with an aggressive driver?

  • Give batch of distance to anyone who appears to be driving aggressively .First and foremost make every attempt to get out of their way. Secondly, never cut anyone off. Undoubtedly, this type of action will further infuriate someone who may already be angry or initiate an aggressive act in retaliation. If you make an error

    while driving, even if you didn’t mean to, it is possible the other driver may try and pick a fight with you thus escalating the situation to one of road rage, so be especially attentive when driving near someone who may be in an angry state of mind. If you

    suspect that someone may be driving while angered, just back-off and put as much distance between your vehicle and the aggressive driver’s as possible.

  • Avoid lineal eye touch with a driver who appears to be agitated. Many people associate eye contact with a challenge or threat. Even a friendly smile can be misinterpreted as a sarcastic threat.
  • Put Your Pride Aside. Do not challenge them by speeding up or attempting to hold-your-own in your travel lane.
  • Gestures. Ignore gestures and refuse to return them.
  • Report Serious Aggressive Driving. You or a passenger may call the patrol. But, if you use a cell call, attract over to a safe placement .

( source : National Highway Traffic Safety Administration )
to the Citizens for Roadside Safety, a highway safety lobbying group, 90 percent
of motorists have witnessed an act of aggressive driving in the past year.

Driving Distractions

When you are behind the steering wheel of your car, the most important responsibility is safe driving. Distractions such as using a cell call, reading a map, drinking chocolate or combing your hair will increase the time it takes you to react, which will in turn increase your chances of getting into a collision .
Driving is a skill that requires your complete attention to not only control your vehicle but besides answer in case something happens up ahead or around your fomite. It involves continuous and building complex coordination between your soundbox and heed. Anything that prevents you from operating your car safely is considered a distraction .
There are three categories of distractions and they are anything that takes your :

  • Eyes off the road ( ocular ).
  • Mind off the road ( cognitive ).
  • Hands off the steering rack ( manual ).

Think about something a elementary as changing the radio receiver stations and you realize that this basic tax encompasses many types of distractions. For example, you think about what you want to listen to ( cognitive ), you take your hand off the steering bicycle to press a clitoris ( manual ), and you take your eyes off the road when you look at the release you need to press ( ocular ) .


The concerns of eating while driving are obvious. Unless you are identical talented, you will need to use at least one of your hands to hold your hamburger or pop. That leaves entirely one hand available for steering your car. If you are driving a manual transmission, the situation gets tied trickier because you besides need to control the stick shift, in addition to your food and the steer wheel. With one hand occupied with food or beverage, you will have a rugged time handling your car should an unanticipated obstacle arise, like a frank running across the road or if you need to make a sudden lane change. Messy and hard-to-eat foods can be even more debatable because they may drip or spill, distracting you promote by causing you to look down at your lap and away from the road. And when you ‘re eating, you are besides dealing with non-food distractions like opening wrappers and wiping your hands and grimace with napkins. spill drinks can besides be black, particularly when the drinks are burning hot. There ‘s nothing like a fresh cup of chocolate in your lap to sidetrack your attention and drive ability .


It ‘s amazing the sum of people that seem to think that driving prison term is a great time to catch up on some personal chores. Besides the fact that activities like shaving or applying makeup require both the driver ‘s attention and hands, normally these tasks are performed using a mirror. There ‘s nothing more upset than seeing a driver positioning their rearview mirror so that it can be used as a cosmetic mirror, rather than to see surrounding traffic .

Distracted by your Surroundings

All drivers should save their sightseeing adventures for when in the passenger seat. Trying to look out your windowpane in order to get a good view of what you are passing can be a distraction of black proportions. Common wayside distractions to avoid staring at include :

  • Collision
  • Construction zones.
  • Billboards.
  • Scenic
  • Street
    names and addresses.

Cell Phone Usage Laws

California has placed restrictions or prohibitions on hand-held radio receiver call custom while driving a centrifugal fomite .
These prohibitions/restrictions vary slenderly for adults versus minors. specifically, CVC 23123 states : “ A person shall not drive a centrifugal vehicle while using a wireless telephone unless that telephone is specifically designed and configured to allow hands-free heed and talking, and is used in that manner while driving. ”
While adults may use hands-free devices, all drivers who are under the age of 18 years of age can not use a radio receiver telephone while operating a motor vehicle, even if it is equipped with a hands-free device .
Exceptions to this law for both adults & minors are they may use a hand-held cell earphone while driving under the stick to circumstances :

  • If making an emergency call to a jurisprudence enforcement agency, the fire department, a health worry supplier or other emergency service representation .
  • While driving an emergency service vehicle and the use of the cell phone is in the course and scope of your duties.

If you absolutely must use a cell phone, here are some helpful guard tips :

  • Always assess traffic conditions before calling.
  • Know your phone’s keypad – use speed dial when possible.
  • Place calls when stopped if possible.
  • Have a passenger place the call for you.
  • Ensure that the phone is within easy reach.
  • Avoid intense, emotional, lengthy or complex conversations.
  • Avoid talking on a cell call in clog traffic or during bad weather .
  • Keep your mind on driving. After all, talking on a cell
    phone while driving never helped anyone reach their destination any faster.

Wireless Communication Device Usage Laws

CVC 23123.5 states : “ A person shall not drive a drive vehicle while holding and operating a hand-held radio telephone or an electronic radio communications device unless the radio call or electronic wireless communications device is specifically designed and configured to allow voice-operated and hands-free operation, and it is used in that manner while driving. ”
This police prohibits drivers from “ holding and operating ” their devices for any reason, including texting, making calls, browsing the internet, using navigation, playing music, etc. The only way drivers can use an electronic device legally while driving is if :

  1. The handheld wireless telephone or electronic wireless communications device is mounted on a vehicle’s windshield in a seven-inch square in the lower corner of the windshield farthest removed from the driver or in a five-inch square in the lower corner of the windshield nearest to the driver and outside of an airbag deployment zone, or is mounted on or affixed to a vehicle’s dashboard or center console in a manner that does not hinder the driver’s view of the road.
  2. The driver only uses a single swipe or finger tap when activating or deactivating a feature on the mounted device.

The reasoning behind why texting and driving can be so distract, even more distract than talking on a cell phone, is double. First and first, drivers need to look away from the road and use their hands when typing a message. second, drivers frequently get indeed wrapped up in the textbook message conversation they are having that their ability to in full concentrate on driving dwindles .


Playing forte music while driving is a common drive beguilement among drivers. not only can it distract your attention from the road, forte stereo can impair your ability to hear approaching hand brake vehicles, and may encourage you to speed without realizing it. Adjusting the volume, changing stations or CDs should only be done when your vehicle is parked .

Headphones or Ear Buds

On many occasions an hand brake vehicle may not be entirely visible to the dealings on the highway, thus it is imperative that drivers have the ability to hear them angstrom well .
CVC 27400 states : “ A person operating a centrifugal fomite or bicycle may not wear a headset cover, earplugs in, or earphones covering, resting on, or inserted in, both ears. ”
Some exceptions to the above prohibition include any person operating an authorize emergency fomite, a person operating limited construction equipment for use in the maintenance of a highway, or any person using a device which aids the intemperate of earshot .
The message derived from this vehicle code is the fact that your hearing, in general, is a key component to safe drive. Along with emergency vehicle realization, your ability to hear another car ‘s horn and/or pedestrians ‘ voices will have an impression on collision avoidance .



CVC 24603 states that any motive vehicle, whether by itself or in combination with another vehicle, shall be equipped with stoplamps mounted on the back, and the stoplamps must be plainly visible and apprehensible from a distance of 300 feet to the rear both during convention sunlight and at night .


says, “ It is improper to operate any motor fomite upon a highway when the windshield or rear window is in such defective condition as to impair the driver ‘s imagination either to the front or rear … ”
Before you start to drive, make certain that all of your windows and mirrors are houseclean, both inwardly and out. bright sunlight or headlights hitting a dirty window can make it very difficult to see out. While driving in rain or snow, be prepared to stop if necessity to wipe off snow or mire from your windshield. Keeping clean and jerk windows help increase your range of visibility around the entire vehicle .


Underinflated tires will wear more on the external edges of the tire. Overinflated tires will wear more on the inside center of the bore. therefore, no matter whether your tires are over- or underinflated they will lose their maximal traction capabilities .
properly maintained tires not only keep you safe, they help your car perform better. You can besides save money by keeping your tires by rights inflated. The average car will get three to four miles more per gallon when the tires are properly inflated than when they are under-inflated. By checking the pressure of your tires regularly, you are not lone reducing the chances of a runaway, but you are besides saving money at the accelerator pump .

Child Passenger Restraints

CVC 27360 requires that every child who is transported in a motor vehicle must be in a DOT-approved child constraint system and by rights secured in the rise buttocks until they are at least eight (8) years old. If the child is under 8 years of age but is four feet nine inches in acme or tall, they may be restrained by a normal safety belt. Further, any child who is under two ( 2 ) years of senesce must be secured in a rear-facing child passenger constraint organization unless the child is 40 pounds or more, or is 40 or more inches tall .
CVC 27363 lists respective exceptions to the habit of a child chasteness system, such as in the subject of a dangerous hand brake, forcible inability, aesculapian condition or size of the child. besides, a child under 8 years old and who is less than 4 feet 9 inches tall may ride in the front buttocks of a vehicle, by rights restrained in a child safety seat, under the follow circumstances :

  • There is no rear seat in the vehicle
  • The rear seats are side-facing or rear-facing
  • The child passenger restraint system cannot be properly installed in the rear seat
  • All rear seats are occupied by children seven years of age or under
  • Medical necessity

In general, the safest way to transport young children is always in the rear seat of your cable car .

Safety Belts

The Mandatory Seat Belt Law (CVC 27315) states that everyone in an car must be restrained by a seat belt or child safety seat. If the driver is not wearing a seat belt, the driver will be cited. If a passenger is not wearing a seat belt ( and they are 16 or older ), both the driver and the passenger will be cited. If the passenger is under 16, alone the driver will receive the citation .
A seat belt is not an option. It is the single most authoritative safety equipment feature of your vehicle. In order for guard belts to be effective, they must be worn by rights and at all times while driving. Most crashes occur within 25 miles of home normally at speeds less than 40 miles per hour. Some deaths have resulted from collisions at speeds deoxyadenosine monophosphate low as 12 miles per hour .

Parking Brake

When parking on a steep ramp or mound, you must take the necessary steps to ensure that your car does n’t roll into the flow of traffic. First of all, for safety and legal reasons, you are always required to set your parking brake. offprint from your unconstipated brake system, your parking brake works on a unlike mechanism ; so both systems do n’t fail at the like time. besides, leave your car in gear if you have a criterion transmission ( stick-shift ), or in parking position if your car is an automatic .
If you are parking adjacent to a control head downhill, turn your front tires into the curb. When parking headed uphill, position your tires away from the curb, then gently let your car roll out back so your front tire is touching the control. Again, the identify when parking on a steep hill is to make sure your cable car does n’t roll into early traffic, potentially causing a collision .

Maintenance and Construction Areas

normally orange bleached signs will be posted and bright orange cones will be placed before and at a construction zone. Warning and guidance signs may say “ ROAD CONSTRUCTION 500 FEET ” or “ LEFT LANE CLOSED 1 MILE ”, or anything pertaining to the condition or activity in a construction or road sustenance zone. Given the dangers involved with people working right next to dealings ( sometimes traveling at senior high school speeds ), it is imperative to obey the mail construction zone travel rapidly limit signs, and, if none are posted, to slow down to a safe accelerate. If you receive a moving rape in a construction zone, be prepared to pay double the fines .

Freeway Driving and Congestion

The adopt steps should help when entering a expressway :

  • Be aware of warning signs and onramp speed limits
  • Carefully check the speed of the flow of traffic
  • Watch vehicle ahead for sudden stops
  • Position your car near a gap in the traffic
  • constantly adjust speed to meet that of the flow
  • Signal during the duration of the merging process
  • ultimately, ease into the gap of dealings safely

always be mindful of cars suddenly slowing or stopping when entering the expressway and make sure that your focal ratio is reproducible with the flow of dealings. Merging excessively firm or slow can cause a collision. The lane where most collisions occur on the expressway is the merging lane .
Most freeways besides provide a deceleration lane for easier access off the expressway. A common error that people make when exiting the expressway is improper planning for the deceleration manoeuver. Know your offramp in progress and be on the lookout for signs indicating your craved exit. last-minute expressway exit can be dangerous, so utilize the deceleration lane to reduce your focal ratio without endangering the traffic to the rear. If you miss your desire offramp, proceed to the next available passing. Do not swerve over, back up or make any other illegal maneuvers to reach the miss offramp. Always make sure to carefully adjust your accelerate in accordance with traffic near you and yield to other drivers that are trying to exit the expressway at the like meter. Some freeways combine the deceleration and acceleration lanes into one lane. This position can pose a peculiarly hazardous scenario, since you have to yield and merge into the gaps of traffic both exiting and entering the expressway. Upon entering the offramp, be aware of station exit lane amphetamine limits and/or curved ramps, and adjust your accelerate accordingly .

Different Weather Conditions

In adverse weather conditions ( such as rain, fog or snow ) you should always use your low beams, since your high beams can blind early drivers ahead of you. More importantly, the acute light emitted from your high beams will reflect off the precipitation in the publicize, and can blind both you and the other driver as well .


The first general rule for driving in the rain ( or on a wet road ) is to slow down. You should besides use the low-beams, so that other cars can see you. It would be a good idea for you to check the condition of your wipers at the beginning of the showery season in your area. Again, clean your windshield much, so the wipers will work at the most efficient degree possible .
here are some more tips for driving in besotted weather :

  • drive in the tracks left by the fomite ahead of you. This area of the road should have better traction than the surrounding areas because of the displacement of water caused by the car ahead of you.
  • Be arsenic smooth as possible. Don’t make quick stops or abrupt turns. These types of maneuvers could cause your tires to lose traction, causing skids.
  • Leave extra space to brake .Remember that it takes twice as long to stop on a wet road as opposed to a dry one. Start to brake earlier before attempting to turn or stop, and increase your following distance between the

    vehicles ahead. Even driving through shallow puddles can lead to reduced braking ability.

  • Slow down through deep water. As tempting as it may be, purposely driving fast through deep water to experience roof-high splashes, or “rooster tails” is extremely dangerous. The chances of hydroplaning and losing total control of your

    vehicle are increased substantially. Do not overload your car to the rear, as this may reduce traction and your car’s handling capabilities through deep water. Shifting to a lower gear is also recommended. In other words, it is best to have a balance of weight

    such as passengers and/or cargo in the front and rear of your vehicle.


Fog poses an specially dangerous driving condition. Without warning, patches of daze may suddenly roll in, hampering your normal field of vision. drive with your moo beams on because your high beams can easily reflect in dazed conditions and impair your visibility further. Make certain to slow down and watch your speedometer since daze can create a ocular illusion of slow apparent motion when you may actually be going much faster. besides, use the right border of the road or painted road markings as a lead. Do not gamble your life and the lives of others by trying to drive in very dense obscure.

Each year approximately 600 people die in crashes associated with dazed conditions .
( source : Federal Highway Administration )
Again, remember to use your car ‘s low-beam lights. It is besides a well estimate to drive with the driver-side windowpane rolled down a little. Have you ever gone to the beach in the blockheaded fog ? You may not have seen the beacon, but you could hear the foghorn. If there is going to be a trouble, such as a car crash up the road, you might be able to hear it long before you can see it. Keeping your window rolled down a little will aid you in hearing the outside make noise better .

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Category : Car Brakes