What is Brakes?- Types, Parts, and Application

What is Brakes?- Types, Parts, and Application

What is a brake?

A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits gesticulate by absorbing energy from a moving system. It is used for slowing or stopping a moving vehicle, wheel, axle, or to prevent its motion, most much accomplished by means of friction.

Most brakes normally use clash between two surfaces being compressed to convert the kinetic energy of the moving object into inflame, although early methods of converting energy can be used. For example, regenerative brake converts much of the department of energy into electric department of energy that can be stored for late use. other methods convert the kinetic energy in store forms such as compress air or pressurized vegetable oil into likely department of energy. Eddy current brakes use magnetic fields to convert kinetic energy into electric current in the brakes disk, fin, or rail, which is converted into estrus.

still, other braking methods even convert energizing energy into assorted forms, for model by transferring the department of energy to a rotating flywheel. Brakes are generally applied to rotating axles or wheels, but they can take other forms such as the surface of a moving liquid ( valves used in water or air ).


To view this video recording please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports HTML5 videoEngineering Choice The Biggest Learning Platform Some vehicles use a combination of braking mechanisms, e.g. Drag racing cars with both wheel brakes and a chute or aircraft with both wheel brakes and drag flaps that are lifted into the air during land .

What is Breaking system?

In an automobile vehicle, a brake organization is an placement of versatile linkages and components ( brake lines or mechanical linkages, drum brakes or magnetic disk brakes, chief cylinder or fulcrums, etc ) that are arranged in such a fashion that it converts the vehicle ’ s energizing department of energy into the heat energy which in turn stops or de accelerate the vehicle. Most brakes use friction on both sides of the wheel, the collective propulsion of the bicycle converts the kinetic energy of the moving object into heat. For example, regenerative brake converts a lot of the energy into electrical energy that can be stored for late use. Eddy current brakes use magnetic fields to convert energizing energy into electrical current in the brakes disk, sword, or rail, which is converted into heat. The follow are the most common types of braking systems in mod automobiles. It ’ sulfur always estimable to know which ones are right for your car for slowly trouble-shoot and maintenance.

Definition of Brakes

A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from a moving organization. It is used for slowing or stopping a moving fomite, wheel, axle, or to prevent its apparent motion, most much accomplished by means of friction.

Parts of Brake system

Following are Parts of the brake system:

  • Brake Pedal
  • Master Cylinder
  • Brake Pads
  • ABS Control Module
  • Brake Booster
  • Disc Brakes
  • Drum Brakes
  • Emergency Brake
  • Brake Pedal
  • Wheel Speed Sensors

1. Brake Pedal

The pedal is what you push with your foot to activate the brakes. It causes brake fluid to flow through the system to put pressure on the brake pads. Driver steps on the bracken pedal to activate the brakes. A piston in the master cylinder moves when the pedal point is pressed .

2. Master Cylinder

The master cylinder is basically a diver that is activated by the bracken pedal. It is what holds the brake fluid and forces it through the brake lines when activated. Converts non-hydraulic blackmail into hydraulic press that the roulette wheel cylinders use to press the brake pads against the rotors to bring the vehicle to a stop consonant .

3. Brake Lines

broadly made of steel, brake lines are what carry the brake fluid from the victor cylinder reservoir to the wheels where press is applied to stop the car .

4. Wheel Cylinders

The brake pads are connected to the wheel cylinders which either pinch ( magnetic disk brakes ) or press apart ( brake drum brakes ) the brake pads when fluid flows into them .

5. Brake Pads

The brake pads are what actually rub against the drums or rotors. They are made of composite materials and designed to last for many, many thousands of miles. however, if you ever hear a grinding or howling randomness when you try to stop your cable car it likely means it is time for newly brake pads .

6. ABS Control Module

Found on vehicles with ABS brakes, the faculty performs diagnostic checks of the ABS brake system and determines when to send the correct atmospheric pressure to each roulette wheel to prevent the wheels from locking up.

7. Brake Booster

Reduces the measure of imperativeness needed for braking to allow any driver to operate the brakes. Uses engine void and pressure to increase the coerce the brake pedal puts on the master cylinder .

8. Disc Brakes

normally found on the front wheels, disk brakes feature brake pads that urge against a phonograph record ( rotor ) when the bracken pedal is applied to stop the fomite. The pads are attached to a brake caliper assembly that frames the rotor .

9. Drum Brakes

Located on the buttocks of the vehicle, drum brakes feature rack cylinders, brake shoes and a brake drum. When the bracken pedal is pressed, the brake shoes are forced into the brake barrel by the wheel cylinders, bringing the vehicle to a stop.

10. Emergency Brake

Operates independently of the main bracken arrangement to keep the vehicle from rolling away. besides known as a parking brake, hired hand brake, and e-brake, the emergency brake is chiefly used to keep the vehicle in locate when parked .

11. Wheel Speed Sensors

part of the ABS brake system, focal ratio sensors monitor the speed of each tire and sends the information to the ABS control module .

Types of Braking Systems

Following are the types of braking systems:

  • Hydraulic braking system
  • Electromagnetic braking system
  • Servo braking system
  • Mechanical braking system

1. Hydraulic braking system

This system is operated with brake fluid, cylinders, and clash. By creating pressure inside, glycol ether or diethylene ethylene glycol force the bracken pads to stop the wheels from moving .

  • The force generated in the hydraulic braking system is higher compared to the mechanical braking system.
  • The hydraulic braking system is one of the most important braking systems for modern vehicles.
  • With a hydraulic brake system, the likelihood of brake failure is very low. The direct connection between the actuator and the brake disc or drum greatly reduces the likelihood of brake failure.

2. Electromagnetic braking system

electromagnetic brake systems are found in many modern and hybrid vehicles. The electromagnetic brake system uses the rationale of electromagnetism to achieve smooth brake. This serves to increase the avail life and dependability of brakes. besides, conventional braking systems tend to slip, while this is supported by fast magnetic brakes. If there is no friction or want for lubrication, this technology is preferred for hybrids. Besides, it is quite modest compared to traditional braking systems. It is chiefly used in trams and trains.

For electromagnetic brakes to work, a magnetic flux, when conducted in a steering perpendicular to the commission of rotation of the bicycle, a rapid current flows in a commission opposite to the direction of rotation of the wheel. This creates a push antonym to the rotation of the wheel and slows the wheel down .

Advantages of Electromagnetic braking system:

  • Electromagnetic braking is quick and cheap.
  • With electromagnetic braking, there are no maintenance costs such as regularly replacing the brake shoes.
  • Electromagnetic braking can improve the capacity of the system (such as higher speeds, heavy loads).
  • Some of the energy is delivered to the utility, which reduces running costs.
  • Electromagnetic braking generates a negligible amount of heat, while mechanical braking generates enormous heat on the brake shoes, which leads to brake failure.

3. Servo braking system

besides known as vacuum or vacuum-assisted brake. This system increases the pressure exerted on the pedal point by the driver. They use the vacuum that is produced in gasoline engines by the air out intake system in the consumption pipe of the engine or by a vacuum pump in diesel engines. A bracken that uses power aid to reduce homo effort. An locomotive vacuum is often used in an automobile to flex a bombastic diaphragm and operate the master cylinder .

  • Servo braking system boosters are used with the hydraulic braking system. The size of the cylinder and the wheels are practically used. Vacuum boosters increase the braking force.
  • Pressing the brake pedal releases the vacuum on the side of the booster. The difference in the air pressure pushes the diaphragm for braking the wheel.

4. Mechanical braking system

The mechanical brake system drives the handbrake or the emergency brake. This is the type of braking system where the braking impel applied to the brake pedal is transmitted through the diverse mechanical connections such as cylindrical rods, fulcrums, springs, etc. to the concluding brake drum or disk rotor to stop the vehicle.

mechanical brakes were used in several automobile motor vehicles, but are antediluvian these days due to their less effectiveness .

Types of Car Brakes

Following are the different types of brakes :

  • Disc Brakes
  • Drum Brakes
  • Emergency Brakes
  • Anti-Lock Brakes

1. Disc Brakes

Disc brakes consist of a brake rotor that is attached immediately to the wheel. hydraulic pressure from the dominate cylinder causes a caliper ( which holds the bracken pads just outside the rotor ) to squeeze the brake pads on either side of the rotor. The clash between the pads and the rotor causes the fomite to slow and stop.

2. Drum Brakes

Drum brakes consist of a bracken drum attached to the inside of the bicycle. When the brake pedal contracts, hydraulic pressure presses two bracken shoes against the bracken cram. This creates clash and causes the vehicle to slow and stop .

3. Emergency Brakes

Emergency brakes, besides known as parking brakes, are secondary braking systems that work independently of the service brakes. While there are many unlike kinds of emergency brakes ( a joint pry between the driver and passenger, a third gear pedal, a push-button or cover near the steering column, etc. ), about all hand brake brakes are powered by cables that mechanically apply blackmail to the wheels. They are broadly used to keep a fomite stationary while parked, but can besides be used in emergencies if the stationary brakes fail .

4. Anti-Lock Brakes

Anti-lock braking systems ( ABS ) are found on most modern vehicles. If the stationary brakes are applied abruptly, ABS prevents the wheels from locking up in order to keep the tires from skidding. This feature of speech is specially utilitarian when driving on wet and slippery roads .

How your car brake system works and How to maintain it?

Cars have brakes on all four wheels that are operated by a hydraulic system. The brakes are either a phonograph record type or drum type. many cars have four-wheel phonograph record brakes although some have discs for the presence wheels and drums for the back. The car brake system works in a few ways :

  • Your foot pushes on the brake pedal and the force generated by your leg is amplified several times by mechanical leverage. It is then amplified further by the action of the brake booster.
  • A piston moves into the cylinder AND it squeezes the hydraulic fluid out of the end.
  • Hydraulic brake fluid is forced around the entire braking system within a network of brake lines and hoses.
  • The pressure is transmitted equally to all four brakes.
  • The force creates friction between brake pads and disc brake rotors which is what stops your vehicle.

How to maintain your car brake system?

car alimony can help you save money quite than bringing your car to the shop alone when something goes wrong. Care should be taken before facing an accident. When your vehicle undergoes the annual department of state inspection, your brakes are reviewed for road-worthiness. here are some steps to maintain your cable car braking system to help you out.

  • Monitor brake fluid levels and carry out a check every three months. Brake fluid should be replaced every two years or every 30,000 to 40,000 miles.
  • Brake discs should be changed when needed depending on your driving style and environmental conditions. Change your brake discs at similar intervals for a normal car. Sports car brakes should be changed after 20,000 miles. If you are having your brakes changed at Fred’s, we add new fluid into your master cylinder.  Be sure to query about our BG Fluids Lifetime Plan to extend the protection of your braking system.
  • Bleed your brake lines to get any air out of your system. This means that your brakes will be pumped while someone watches the bleeder valve and closes the valve when brake fluid begins to flow through.
  • Have your brake pads and rotors inspected to ensure that they are in excellent working condition. If the brake is worn-down badly, it’s time to replace the brake pad.

Braking-fundamentals: friction and how it applies to automobiles

  • A brake system is designed to slow and halt the motion of the vehicle. To do this, various components within the brake system must convert the vehicle’s moving energy into heat. This is done by using friction.
  • Friction is the resistance to movement exerted by two objects on each other. Two forms of friction play a part in controlling a vehicle: Kinetic or moving, and static or stationary. The amount of friction or resistance to movement depends upon the type of material in contact, the smoothness of their rubbing surfaces, and the pressure holding them together.
  • Thus, in a nutshell, a car brake works by applying a static surface to a moving surface of a vehicle, thus causing friction and converting kinetic energy into heat energy. The high-level mechanics are as follows.
  • As the brakes on a moving automobile are put into motion, rough-textures brake pads or brake shoes are pressed against the rotating parts of the vehicle, be it disc or drum. The kinetic energy or momentum of the vehicle is then converted into heat energy by kinetic friction of the rubbing surfaces and the car or truck slows down.
  • When a vehicle comes to stop, it is held in place by static friction. The friction between surfaces of brakes as well as the friction between tires and roads resist any movement. To overcome the static friction that holds the car motionless, brakes are released. The heat energy of the combustion of in-engine is converted into kinetic energy by transmission and drive train, and the vehicle moves.

Characteristics of Brakes

Brakes are much described according to several characteristics including :

  • Peak force: The peak force is the maximum decelerating effect that can be obtained. The peak force is often greater than the traction limit of the tires, in which case the brake can cause a wheel skid.
  • Continuous power dissipation: Brakes typically get hot in use, and fail when the temperature gets too high. The greatest amount of power (energy per unit time) that can be dissipated through the brake without failure is continuous power dissipation. Continuous power dissipation often depends on e.g., the temperature and speed of ambient cooling air.
  • Fade: As a brake heats, it may become less effective, called brake fade. Some designs are inherently prone to fade, while other designs are relatively immune. Further, use considerations, such as cooling, often have a big effect on the fade.
  • Smoothness: A brake that is grabby, pulses, has chatter, or otherwise exerts varying brake force may lead to skids. For example, railroad wheels have little traction, and friction brakes without an anti-skid mechanism often lead to skids, which increases maintenance costs and leads to a “thump thump” feeling for riders inside.
  • Power: Brakes are often described as “powerful” when a small human application force leads to a braking force that is higher than typical for other brakes in the same class. This notion of “powerful” does not relate to continuous power dissipation, and maybe confusing in that a brake may be “powerful” and brake strongly with a gentle brake application, yet have lower (worse) peak force than a less “powerful” brake.
  • Pedal feel: Brake pedal feel encompasses subjective perception of brake power output as a function of pedal travel. Pedal travel is influenced by the fluid displacement of the brake and other factors.
  • Drag: Brakes have varied amounts of drag in the off-brake condition depending on the design of the system to accommodate total system compliance and deformation that exists under braking with the ability to retract friction material from the rubbing surface in the off-brake condition.
  • Durability: Friction brakes have to wear surfaces that must be renewed periodically. Wear surfaces include the brake shoes or pads, and also the brake disc or drum. There may be tradeoffs, for example, a wear surface that generates high peak force may also wear quickly.
  • Weight: Brakes are often “added weight” in that they serve no other function. Further, brakes are often mounted on wheels, and unsprung weight can significantly hurt traction in some circumstances. “Weight” may mean the brake itself or may include additional support structure.
  • Noise: Brakes usually create some minor noise when applied, but often create squeal or grinding noises that are quite loud.

Disc vs Drum Brakes

Another brake classification is in terms of disk and barrel. This refers to the actual mechanics of slowing down the vehicle. Let us take a search at these two systems .

Drum brakes

A drum brake assembly consists of a cast-iron drum that is bolted to and rotates with the vehicle ’ randomness wheel, and a fix second plate to which the shoes, roulette wheel cylinder, automatic adjusters and linkages are attached. additionally, there might be some excess hardware for parking brakes. The shoes are surfaced with friction linings, which contact the at heart of the drum when brakes are applied. The shoes are forced outward by a piston located inside the wheel cylinder. As the cram rub against shoes, the energy of the moving drum is transformed to heat.

This estrus energy is passed into the atmosphere. When the brake pedal point is released, hydraulic pressure drops, and the shoes are pulled back to their unapplied status by fall springs.

Disc brakes

In a magnetic disk bracken, the clash elements are in the shape of pads, which are squeezed or clamped about the edge of a rotating steering wheel. With automotive phonograph record brakes, there is a separate wheel unit called the Rotor ( normally called a phonograph record ) alongside the fomite ’ south wheel. This rotor is made of roll iron. Since pads clamp against both sides of it, both sides are machined smooth. normally, the two surfaces are separated by a fin center section for better cool ( such rotors are called vent rotors or in common words as vent magnetic disk ). The pads are attached to metal shoes, which are actuated by pistons, the same as with drum brakes. The pistons are contained within a caliper assembly, housing the wraps around the border of the rotor. The caliper is kept from rotating by way of bolts holding it to the cable car ’ south pause frame work.

Unlike shoes in a brake drum brake, the pads here act vertical to the rotation of disk when brakes are applied. The effect is different from that produced in a bracken drum, where frictional puff actually pulls the horseshoe in to drum. Disc brakes are said to be non-energized and therefore require more force to achieve the same brake effort. For this reason, they are normally used in concurrence with exponent brake unit. In general, disk brakes are considered to be more effective than cram brakes. however, they are more complicate and therefore come at a higher cost

Stop Light Switches

When exercising a brake, a light starts burning on the back of the vehicle. The traffic light switch and mounting bracket assembly is attached to the brake pedal bracket and is thus activated by pressing the brake bicycle.

What is Brake Fluid?

Brake fluid is a type of hydraulic fluid used in hydraulic brake and hydraulic cling to applications in automobiles, motorcycles, light trucks, and some bicycles. It is used to transfer force into pressure, and to amplify braking effect. It works because liquids are not appreciably compressible. Most brake fluids used today are glycol-ether based, but mineral oil ( Citroën/Rolls-Royce liquide hydraulique minéral ( LHM ) ) and silicone-based ( DOT 5 ) fluids are besides available.

The three main types of brake fluent now available are DOT3, DOT4, and DOT5. DOT3 and DOT4 are glycol-based fluids, and DOT5 is silicon-based. The independent remainder is that DOT3 and DOT4 absorb water, while DOT5 doesn ’ triiodothyronine. The main requirements for brake fluids are gamey operation temperatures, good low-temperature and viscosity-temperature properties, physical and chemical constancy, protection of metals from corrosion, inactivity concerning mechanical rubber articles, and lubricating effect .

Brake bleeding

Fluids can not be compressed ; however, gases are compressible. If there is any publicize in a fluid brake hydraulic system, this will be compressed as pressure increases. This natural process reduces the come of military unit that can be transmitted by the fluid. This is why it is authoritative to keep all bubbles out of the hydraulic system. To do this, vent must be released from the brakes. This procedure is called run of the bracken system. The simple operation involves forcing of fluid through brake lines and out through a hemophiliac valve or hemophiliac screw. The fluid eliminates any air that may be in the system. Bleeder screws and valves are fastened to the wheel cylinder or caliper. The hemophiliac must be cleaned. A drain hose is then connected from the hemophiliac to the methamphetamine jar where the fluent coming out from the hemophiliac valve is collected. Bleeding involves the repetition of procedures at each bicycle to ensure arrant bleed. interim, one person should besides be assigned to top up the fluid grade in a container over the victor cylinder to compensate for the fluent taken out through valves. If top-up is not continued, then there are chances of air bubbles being developed in the organization which further delays the process .


What is a Brake? A bracken is a mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from a moving system. It is used for slowing or stopping a moving vehicle, wheel, axle, or to prevent its movement, most often accomplished by means of clash .What is Braking system? In an car vehicle, a brake system is an arrangement of diverse linkages and components ( brake lines or mechanical linkages, brake drum or brake disk, master cylinder or fulcrums etc ) that are arranged in such a fashion that it converts the fomite ’ s kinetic energy into the estrus department of energy which in bend stops or de accelerate the vehicle .What are the types of Braking systems? Following are the types of braking systems :
1. Hydraulic braking system
2. electromagnetic brake system
3. Servo braking system
4. Mechanical braking system

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What are the types of Brake? Following are the different types of brakes :
1. Disc Brakes
2. Drum Brakes
3. emergency Brakes
4. Anti-Lock BrakesWhat are the parts of the brake system? Parts of bracken arrangement :
1. Brake Pedal
2. headmaster Cylinder
3. Brake Pads
4. ABS Control Module
5. Brake Booster
6. Disc Brakes
7. Drum Brakes
8. Emergency Brake
9. headmaster Cylinder
10. Brake Pedal
11. Wheel Speed Sensors

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Category : Car Brakes