Wikipedia

Wikipedia
Railway rolling stock used to transport automobiles
Wikipedia A modern German autorack similar to the original plan with a wax cargo of automobilesWikipedia A Norfolk Southern autorack on a TTX platform An autorack, besides known as an auto carrier ( besides cable car conveyer belt outside the US ), is a specialized while of railroad rolling lineage used to transport automobiles and light trucks. Autoracks are used to transport new vehicles from factories to automotive distributors, and to transport passengers ‘ vehicles in cable car shuttles and motorail services, such as Amtrak ‘s Auto Train route.

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history [edit ]

In the early twentieth century, when automobiles were however new technology, their production levels were abject enough that they could be shipped in sufficient quantities in boxcars. Two to four automobiles would normally fit into one boxcar. But as the car diligence grew in size, railroads found that they needed to modify the boxcars for more efficient loading. Some modifications included longer boxcars, larger sliding double side doors located near one end of the boxcar, or doors located on the boxcar ends. These modifications helped, but the demand for new automobiles outpaced the railroads ‘ abilities to build and modify boxcars in which to ship them. In 1923, the Grand Trunk Western Railroad experimented with modifying a group of 61-foot ( 18.59 molarity ) -long wood-frame flat cars to increase their capacity by adding collapsible frames to allow for double-deck operation. The concept was not perfected and consequently failed to gain acceptance. In the 1940s and 1950s, some railroads experimented with automobile-loading assemblies that would lift one or more automobiles above others within a boxcar. The success of these assemblies was limited due to their special use and specific size ; it proved uneconomical to maintain a fleet of these assemblies that could merely be loaded into boxcars from the ends of the cars. By this time, in the United States, most circuses calm traveled by rail. Circuses were major haulers of wheel vehicles, carrying all of their vehicles on bland cars, normally behind their own passenger cars or in separate sections of their trains ; basically, one train would haul the performers and employees while a second coach would haul the vehicles and freight. The circus solution to loading vehicles was to use a string of flatcars. A irregular ramp was placed at the end of the flatcars and temp bridge plates spanned the gaps between adjacent flatcars ; the road vehicles were driven or towed up onto one car and then driven or towed down the coach. This type of vehicle loading became known as “ circus manner ” due to its patronize habit by circuses. In the 1950s, most railroads took the cue from circuses and started loading their own flatcars in this manner. But, loading flush up to six automobiles onto one flat car left a boastfully sum of space above the vehicles that was fresh. The natural solution was to take the irregular assemblies that were used to stack and load vehicles within boxcars and permanently attach them to the flatcars. The assemblies, besides called racks, created two levels on which automobiles could be loaded. To complete the flatcar, foldable bridges were added to the ends of the flatcar decks to allow the vehicles to be driven the entire distance of a train for loading. such flatcars eliminated the want for specialize equipment to warhead and unload boxcar racks. All they needed now was a ramp at the correct acme. In the mid-1950s, in Germany, Volkswagen Beetle production was increasing beyond the capacity of highway trucks ( autocarriers ). Volkswagen engineers worked with german railroads to design a railroad car that was basically an excess long version of a fomite hauling dawdler. The design they came up with was able to carry 10 vehicles on one car. VW ‘s two-level flatcar blueprint effectively became the first autorack, entering service circa 1954. besides in 1954 Evans Products, a manufacturer of loading racks for carrying automobiles in conventional boxcars, developed a bi-level Auto-Loader superstructure with an elevating crown deck adequate to of carrying six cars or light trucks on a distinctive flatcar. Two prototype units were constructed and mounted on conventional 53 foot bland cars for airfield testing. NYC 500085 carried a semi-streamlined rack, [ 1 ] [ 2 ] while UP 5800 had a more utilitarian rack mounted. Neither design went into commercial product. In former 1957, canadian National ( CN ) introduced an advanced group of bi-level car carriers. These CN cars were similar to ceremonious boxcars, except they had a second base shock and doors at both ends of the cable car rather of the common side doors. They were huge by the standards of the time ; the cars were 75 foot ( 22.86 molarity ) long and could carry eight vehicles. These cars were a big success and helped lead to the development of nowadays ‘s insert car racks. In 1959, when 85 foot ( 25.91 megabyte ) flat cars capable of carrying two 49-foot ( 14.94 meter ) highway trailers in trailer-on-flatcar ( TOFC ), or “ piggyback “ service were introduced, new automobiles began to be shipped by rail loaded on highway auto-carrier trailers. Eight to ten autos could be carried per flat car in this manner. By 1960 respective U.S. railroads were handling new automobiles in this way, including the CB & Q, C & NW, CRIP, D & H, D & RGW, ERIE/EL, GN, KCS, L & N, MILW, MKT, MP/TP, NP, SL-SF, SP, SSW, WAB and UP. The New York Central, which used the Flexi-Van system of transporting only the highway dawdler body without the bicycle forum, developed a Flexi-Van car carrier wrack. Seeking a more efficient method acting, in February 1959 the Saint Louis-San Francisco Railroad ( SL-SF, or Frisco ) designed and built a prototype bi-level rack mounted on 42-foot ( 12.80 thousand ) flat car SL-SF 95844. [ 3 ] Satisfied that the basic concept was sound, the railroad contracted with Pullman-Standard to design and construct a life-size tri-level prototype. The resultant role that rolled out of the Pullman plant on January 29, 1960, was SLSF 3000, an 83-foot ( 25.30 thousand ) tri-level car able of carrying 12 automobiles. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] When testing proved the car satisfactory the Frisco ordered 130 production cars, SL-SF 3001–3130, delivered by Pullman that August and September. In 1960 the Frisco was not the lone railroad experimenting with racks mounted on flat cars to carry automobiles. In January the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway ( ATSF ) constructed a prototype trilevel rack mounted on 53-foot ( 16.15 megabyte ) flat ATSF 90082. [ 6 ] Santa Fe ‘s first production car racks were 85-foot ( 25.91 thousand ) trilevel Auto-Veyor units supplied by Dana-Spicer and Whitehead & Kales late in the year, both mounted on General American-built G85 cars. The Southern Pacific actually took delivery of the first Whitehead & Kales Auto-Pack tri-level racks in April, mounting them on General American-built Clejan and G85 cars. [ 7 ] The slenderly longer 85-foot ( 25.91 megabyte ) racks could carry 12 full size or 18 covenant autos per car. several other railroads promptly ordered their own car racks from Dana and W & K or from american Car & Foundry, Darby Corporation, Evans Products, Paragon Bridge & Steel, or Thrall Car Manufacturing. [ 8 ] The Santa Fe and Frisco besides built some of their autoracks in their own car shops. curiously, in 1961 a German-built three-unit, articulated bilevel autorack was imported into the United States to demonstrate the german design to U.S. railroads. north american Car Corporation handled promotion of the car, which was marked NIFX 1200. The car ride on four single-axle trucks and was tested by the B & O, [ 9 ] but no sales resulted. Starting in this early on time period, most autoracks were mounted on flatcar cars leased from a rent company, such as Trailer Train ( see below ), north american english Car ( NIFX marks ), Merchants Despatch ( MDAX marks ), American Refrigerator Transit ( MPFX marks ), or Pullman ‘s Transport Leasing Division ( TLCX marks ), but many roads besides operated cars mounted on their own flat cars. Railroads known to have done so include ATSF, CN, CP, CR, CRR, D & RGW, FEC, GN, GTW, KCS, L & N, Monon, MP, N & W, RI, SCL, SLSF, SOO, Southern, SP, SSW, UP, WM, and WP .

Transporting new automobiles [edit ]

Wikipedia The open end of a bi-level autorack that is undergo repairs During the early 1960s, specially build up car carriers quickly took over rail department of transportation of newly completed automobiles in North America. They carried more vehicles in the same outer space and were easier to load and unload than the boxcars once used. Ever-larger car carriers and specialize terminals were developed by Norfolk and Western Railway ( N & W ) and other carriers. Autoracks were built in three-level configurations carrying automobiles, and with two-levels for vans and light trucks. Autorack and bland cable car duration promptly grew to 87 feet ( 26.52 meter ) and then 89 feet ( 27.13 meter ) to increase their load capacity even further. This made them about a long as the average railroad track passenger car of the time ; if the cars were much longer, they would not be able to operate in exchange servicing due to clearance on curves. Yet, the railroads could still do better. A major trouble left to solve was that the new autorack cars did not provide any protective covering from larceny, vandalism, or from severe weather. Individual railroads began installing mesh topology english screens and solid panels to their racks to protect the vehicles from impact and debris in the late 1960s, [ 10 ] and by the early 1970s new racks were being delivered with these side panels. however, thieves and vagrants could still gain access to the automobiles. In 1973 the first in full enclosed racks with continuous side panels, end doors, and roofs were developed to address this problem. Whitehead & Kales, Ford, N & W and DT & I jointly developed a Snap-Pak prototype enclosed tri-level car, NW 400000. [ 11 ] The car side was made up of overlapping perforated steel sheets. The ends were protected with two trifold doors, and a corrugate steel roof extended the full moon distance of the car. [ 12 ] A competing RailPac prototype was developed by Portec-Paragon, Chrysler, and several railroads. It featured engage screen side panels, vertically sliding three-piece doors, and a similar roof. [ 12 ] The Southern Railway and Greenville Steel Car developed a singular 124-foot articulated three-unit Autoguard car with single axle trucks, SOU 599000-599001. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 15 ] The first output fully enclosed racks were delivered in late 1974 and early 1975. The Whitehead & Kales tri-level design, renamed Safe-Pak, [ 16 ] was delivered to ATSF, CP, CRR, FEC, NW, SCL, SSW, UP, and WP, all of them riding on railroad-owned flats. Portec ‘s RailPac purpose, developed in cooperation with Chrysler, was placed into serve by ATSF, C & O, C & NW, D & RGW, GTW, N & W, RF & P, SLSF, SP, UP and respective other roads, with most riding on leased Trailer Train flats. [ 17 ] These two designs were refined during the recently 1970s and by 1980 amply enclosed tri-levels accounted for roughly a third gear of the in-service fleet, however in full enclosed bi-levels lagged far behind. Roofs were not added to all autoracks until the mid-1980s, as it took clock for railroads with low overhead headroom routes to modify their bridge and burrow clearances to accept them. consequently, some roofless and even open tri-levels and bi-levels remained in service into the mid-late 1980s. The number of manufacturers offering autoracks declined during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. several firms simply exited the field, including AC & F, Evans, Dana, and Darby, while others were acquired by other builders. Pullman, after supplying the very foremost production tri-level autoracks to the Frisco, abandoned the sphere to concentrate on the flat cars that autoracks were mounted on, only to return briefly in 1976–1977 to build a few tri-levels for the B & O and Cotton Belt ( SSW ). Pacific Car & Foundry concisely produced a few racks at about the same time, as did Thrall. Whitehead & Kales, one of two dominant producers since the belated 1960s, was acquired by Thrall in 1981. Paragon, the other leading rack-builder, was purchased by Portec in the early 1970s, which was in turn acquired by Thrall in 1985. Paragon ‘s autorack designs were sold to Greenville Steel Car, besides in 1985, which was itself acquired by Trinity Industries in 1986. Thrall itself was finally acquired by Trinity angstrom well in 2001. presently autoracks are produced by TrinityRail, Greenbrier, Johnstown America, National Steel Car, and the Union Pacific Railroad .

Vert-A-Pac and Stac-Pac [edit ]

Wikipedia Vegas loaded on Vert-a-pac Both railroads and automakers wanted to eliminate larceny and damage from vandalism and weather, thus reducing ship costs. They besides wanted to increase the number of vehicles carried per railing car for the same reason. Toward that end, in 1968 General Motors and the Southern Pacific Railroad jointly began solve on development of a radical new rail car designed to carry the Chevrolet Vega, a modern compact car being developed by GM. Known as “ Vert-A-Pac ”, the rail cars would hold 30 Vegas in a vertical, nose-down place, versus 18 in normal tri-level autoracks. Each Vega was fitted with four removable, cast-steel sockets inserted into the undercarriage that locked into the hook on the bottom-hinged doors that made up the car side. [ 18 ] The prototype car, SP 618000 was turned out in December, 1968 and tested through 1969. [ 19 ] [ 20 ] Chevrolet conducted vibration and low-speed doss tests to make certain nose-down Vegas would not shift or be damaged in car collisions. Chevrolet ‘s finish was to deliver Vegas topped with fluids and quick to drive to the franchise. To do this Vega engineers had to design a extra engine oil baffle to prevent petroleum from entering the No. 1 cylinder, batteries had makeweight caps located high up on the buttocks edge of the character to prevent acerb spill, the carburetor float bowl had a particular tube that drained gasoline into the vaporization canister during dispatch, and the windshield washer bottle stood at a 45 degree slant. plastic spacers were wedged in beside the powertrain to prevent wrong to engine and transmission mounts. The wedges were removed when cars were drop. The track cable car doors were opened and closed by means of a forklift truck. [ 21 ] The first product Vert-A-Pacs entered serve in April, 1970, the last ones in January, 1973. Besides Southern Pacific, the B & O, BN, D & RGW, FEC, IC, L & N, MILW, MP, personal computer ( MDT ), RI, SCL, SLSF and Southern Railway operated Vert-A-Pacs. All were withdrawn from service at the end of the 1977 Vega model year and were reracked with ceremonious tri-level racks. Another joint General Motors-Southern Pacific automobile rail car was the Stac-Pac. It was designed to carry 12 high conclusion Oldsmobile, Buick, and Cadillac models in four obliterable amply enclosed tri-level containers per 89-foot categoric car. [ 22 ] The first production Stac-Pac cars entered overhaul in October, 1971. Beside SP and its Cotton Belt subordinate ( SSW ), Stac-Pac flat cars were contributed to the pool by the Santa Fe and Trailer Train, with the containers being supplied by ATSF, BN, D & RGW, FEC, MILW, personal computer ( MDT ), RI, Southern, SP, SSW, UP, and by General Motors itself. All of the cars and containers were withdrawn from service at the end of the 1976 exemplary year .

preview Train caller [edit ]

Although railroads were fair beginning to see the advantages that autoracks delivered in the 1960s, most north american railroads were reluctant to invest in such particularly built equipment. The Trailer Train Company, organized by the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Norfolk and Western Railway in 1955, stepped in to ease the railroads ‘ fiscal burden a bit. Trailer Train purchased the bland cars from the rail car manufacturers, and the railroads that wanted to operate autoracks, purchased the racks that were installed on those flat cars. such cars were easily spotted at trackside due to the report marks identifying Trailer Train on the flat car assign of the car and the railroad ‘s logo ( normally much larger ) in the upper part of the rack. This musical arrangement worked so well that closely every autorack operate in the US was owned by a railroad, with only a few exceptions. Trailer Train became TTX Company in 1991 ; since then many railroads have themselves purchased the two-dimensional cars on which the racks were installed and TTX has itself expanded into buying and leasing out other railway rolling neckcloth. The development of enclose autoracks besides helped make several early advanced services work well. Trailer Train / TTX reporting marks applied to autorack flats : BTTX ( 1 ) – 85 foot to 89 foot bi-level rack with fixed decks ; used from 1960 to 1988 BTTX ( 2 ) – fully enclosed articulated bi-level with fix decks, used from 1997 CTTX ( 2 ) – 89 foot enclosed but dispossessed tri-level for habit on first gear operating expense clearance routes ; used from 1976 ahead CTTX ( 3 ) – 89-4 in full enclosed convertible bi-level/trilevel with hinge middle deck ; used from 2013 ahead ETTX ( 1 ) – 89 foot tri-level with elevating middle and top decks ; used from 1962 to 1973 ETTX ( 2 ) – 89-4 amply enclosed tri-level with hinge middle deck ; used from 1973 ahead KTTX – 87 foot to 89 ft tri-level with hinge center deck

RTTX – 85 foot to 89 foot tri-level rack with repair decks ; used from 1960 to 1985 TTBX – 89-4 bi-level with pay back decks ; used from 1968 ahead TTGX – 89-4 fully enclosed bi-level with pay back deck ; used from 1977 ahead TTKX – 89-4 tri-level with hinge middle deck ; used from 1968 ahead TTNX – 89-4 envelop but doorless bi-level with fixed decks, used from 1983 forward TTQX – 89-4 20 ft-2 in high amply enclosed tri-level with hinge middle pack of cards ; used from 1990 forth TTRX – 89-4 tri-level with pay back decks ; used from 1968 forth TTSX ( 1 ) – 89-4 Stac-Pac flats, used 1972–1976 TTSX ( 2 ) – 89-4 enclose but dispossessed bi-level with sterilize decks, used from 1979 ahead TTUX ( 2 ) – 81 foot enclosed single deck for boastfully trucks and early vehicles, used from 2007 forward TTVX ( 1 ) – 89-4 Vert-A-Pacs, used 1970–1977 TTVX ( 2 ) – 89-4 insert but doorless tri-level with hinge middle deck, used from 1982 forward

New designs and current usage [edit ]

Railroads of today are distillery grappling with the problem of loading more and larger vehicles onto autoracks. One popular solution is to create a double-length cable car that is articulated over a one middle truck so that each half of the cable car is about the like length as a ceremonious autorack. These cars, which can be seen in operation on many of the railroads of the western US ( but besides seen occasionally in the Great Lakes and Southern Ontario ), are mark named AutoMax cars. These cars, built by Gunderson ( a subsidiary company of The Greenbrier Companies ) measurement 145 foot 4 in ( 44.3 megabyte ) long and 20 foot 2 in ( 6.15 molarity ) tall ; [ 23 ] they feature adjustable interior decks to carry astir to 22 light trucks and minivans. Thrall produced a competing articulate two-unit design. For greater flexibility and to improve car use, presently single-unit autoracks are being built that allow the total of load levels, or decks, to be well changed between bilevel ( two ) and trilevel ( three ), depending on which is in necessitate at the time. Greenbrier calls their version of this multilevel concept the Multi-Max, while the Union Pacific Railroad builds their own version, called the AutoFlex. The railroads became the elementary long-distance transporter of completed automobiles. Using the envelop tri-level autoracks, they were able to provide both lower costs and greater auspices from in-transit damage ( such as that which may occur due to weather and traffic conditions on unenclosed truck semi-trailers ). When the railroad companies went from the open autoracks to the enclosed, they were able to reduce freight wrong claims. The envelop vilify cars prevented the car from getting damaged from falling or throw rocks, bullets and other forms of vandalism. They besides stopped the larceny of autos and parts from autos and kept hobos from exist in the automobiles .

Latest innovations [edit ]

In 1999, BNSF Railway and Kansas City Southern Railway started using Auto-Max railcars. Most light-weight aluminum autoracks have 2 levels, but Auto-Max has 3 levels and is able to fit 22 cars inside. They are articulated two unit railcars that are 20 feet 2 inches ( 6.15 meters ) tall [ 23 ] and 145 feet 4 inches ( 44.30 meters ) retentive over coupling faces. [ 23 ] Single unit autoracks are 89 feet ( 27.13 meters ) retentive. In 2004, canadian National was at the forefront of autorack engineering again by using light-weight aluminum. The fresh cars, built by Johnstown America Corporation beginning in December 2004, are brand named AVC, an acronym for Aluminum Vehicle Carrier. Two hundred newfangled aluminum autoracks promise a softer ride, a wide interior, superior door-edge protection, and a rust-free interior from older steel versions. canadian Pacific Railway has ordered 375 of these new cars as well. The newfangled cars built for Amtrak Auto Train service disagree from those built for CN and CP ; the Amtrak cars are 3 inches ( 76 millimeter ) lower, or 19 foot 11 in ( 6.07 molarity ), in height, and habit solid side panels rather of the perforated panels operated in cargo service. [ citation needed ]

Combining autoracks and passenger cars [edit ]

Australia [edit ]

Great Southern Rail provides a Motorail service on its long-distance Indian Pacific, between Adelaide and Perth, The Ghan, between Adelaide and Darwin, and once offered Motorail on The Overland services. [ 24 ] [ 25 ] [ 26 ] Traveltrain in Queensland once offered a Motorail service on its Sunlander and Spirit of the Outback trains. [ 27 ] The Victorian Railways once offered Motorail on The Vinelander, and Sunraysia services on the Mildura line. [ 28 ] The New South Wales Railways ( later the Public Transport Commission ) once offered Motorail services on its long-distance lines .

Europe [edit ]

United States [edit ]

A rail transport service where passengers can take their car along with them on their travel is known as an “ Auto Train “ in North America and as a “ Motorail ” in Australia and Europe. Passengers are carried in normal passenger cars or in sleeping cars on longer journeys, while their vehicles are loaded into autoracks, car carriers, or flatcars .

Auto-Train pot [edit ]

On December 6, 1971, Auto-Train Corporation introduced a newfangled and advanced track transportation system service for both passengers and their automobiles in the United States, operating scheduled service between Lorton, Virginia ( near Washington, D.C. ) and Sanford, Florida, near Orlando. The Auto Train offered an alternate to motorists who would otherwise drive their automobiles the 855-mile ( 1,376 kilometer ) distance along the east slide of the United States. For vacationers with destinations at one or more of the many democratic tourist attractions of Florida, the Auto Train servicing offered double features :

  1. avoid the long automobile ride on busy Interstate 95 in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida
  2. have the convenience of use of their own automobile upon arrival.

From the begin in 1971, the lapp year Amtrak began service on strictly passenger routes in the United States, a key feature of Auto-Train ‘s newfangled service was the use of autoracks, which were erstwhile canadian National transcontinental bi-level, enclosed autorack boxcars. These were augmented by newfangled tri-level auto-racks built by Southern Iron & Equipment in 1976. The privately owned service became very popular, but after 10 years of operation, and some costly attempts to expand the service elsewhere, such as a agenda between Florida and Chicago, Illinois, Auto-Train Corporation entered bankruptcy, and avail ended in April 1981 .

Amtrak ‘s Auto Train [edit ]

Auto Train overhaul between Virginia and Florida was resumed by Amtrak in 1983. Amtrak, a federally chartered pot which operates most intercity passenger trains in the United States, continued to use Auto-Train ‘s autoracks as an important parcel of its servicing. These were supplemented with newfangled bilevels built by Johnstown America in 2004 and 2005. In stream operation of Amtrak ‘s Auto Train, there are two trains in operation simultaneously. The autoracks normally run on the rear of Auto Train consists, which stretch over a three quarters of a mile, [ 29 ] and are a familiar batch on CSX Transportation tracks on the east seashore. today, Amtrak ‘s Auto Train carries about 200,000 passengers and generates about $ 50 million in tax income annually. It is considered Amtrak ‘s best-paying train in terms of income in comparison with engage expenses. [ citation needed ]

Whittier Shuttle [edit ]

In the mid-1960s, the Alaska Railroad began offering a vehicle shuttle service utilizing standard flat cars and passenger cars. Dubbed the “ Whittier Shuttle, ” it operated in Alaska through the Anton Anderson Memorial Tunnel under Maynard Mountain between a stop merely off the Seward Highway near the former town of Portage and the small port town of Whittier, Alaska, which was besides a port-of-call for the Alaska Marine Highway ferry system.

As traffic to Whittier increased, the shuttle became insufficient, leading to a project to convert the existing railway burrow into a single-lane combination highway and railway burrow which was opened to dealings on June 7, 2000. At a distance of 13,300 feet ( 4,053.84 megabyte ), it is the second-longest highway tunnel and longest combined fulminate and highway burrow in North America .

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

References [edit ]

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